Sustainable Developments

SD Main Page ~ Download PDF ~ Download Text ~ Back Adobe
The free Adobe(R) Acrobat(R) Reader allows you to view, navigate, and print PDF files across all major computing platforms.

REPORT OF THE SECOND IUCN WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS
4-11 OCTOBER 2000

The Second IUCN World Conservation Congress met from 4-11 October 2000 in Amman, Jordan. An estimated 2,000 individuals from 140 countries representing governments, NGOs, UN Agencies and the private sector participated in the Congress. The Congress' theme was "Ecospace" - a concept that conveys the message that transboundary management of ecosystems is vital for the environmental agenda.

Over the course of the meeting, delegates participated in 12 thematic sessions to consider issues ranging from ecospaces and a global culture for sustainability, to environment and security, to local solutions promoting social equity and cultural diversity. The Congress adopted 104 resolutions on a wide range of conservation, programme and governance topics.

The Earth Forum, a day long meeting co-hosted by the Earth Council and IUCN, preceded the Congress and brought together experts to debate "Where are we going? Prospects for the earth in the new millennium." The Earth Forum held four consecutive thematic sessions to consider whether sustainable development is sustainable, civil societies' evolving role in governance, emerging environmental conflicts and whether we can afford the future.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF IUCN AND THE WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS

IUCN - The World Conservation Union - was established in 1948 and today brings together 78 States, 112 government agencies, 735 NGOs, of which 65 are international, 35 affiliates and some 10,000 scientists and experts from 181 countries in a worldwide partnership. One of the few international organizations that both governments and NGOs can join, IUCN provides a neutral forum where organizations from different sectors can meet, exchange views and plan actions together. IUCN's mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.

The IUCN Secretariat consists of some 1,000 staff members, most of whom are located in IUCN's 42 regional and country offices, with 100 individuals at its headquarters in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has six global Commissions constituting a network of approximately 10,000 volunteer experts committed to global biodiversity conservation. The Commissions cover the following topics: ecosystem management; education and communication; environmental, economic and social policy; environmental law; species survival; and protected areas.

The IUCN Council, the governing body whose members are elected by the World Conservation Congress, meets annually or biannually to set the annual budget, decide major policy issues and review IUCN's programme implementation. The IUCN President, elected by the Congress, chairs the Council and guides IUCN's work between Congresses. IUCN member organizations form national or regional committees, which play an important role in priority setting, programming, membership coordination and programme implementation. The IUCN Director General is responsible for implementing the programme with the support of the Secretariat and the IUCN networks.

World Conservation Congresses are convened every three or four years to determine policy and the broad elements of IUCN's programme. The First World Conservation Congress was held in Montreal in 1996; prior to holding World Conservation Congresses, IUCN convened 19 General Assemblies. These General Assemblies and World Conservation Congresses have adopted hundreds of resolutions and recommendations, influencing the course of conservation action locally, nationally and internationally.

IUCN's contributions to conservation are numerous, including assistance in the development of national environmental legislation and international environmental conventions such as the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. IUCN was also the driving force behind the World Conservation Strategy, Caring for the Earth and the Global Biodiversity Strategy, projects that introduced concepts such as sustainable development, biodiversity and ecosystem management. IUCN has been a leader in developing conservation programmes for major ecosystem types, particularly forests, wetlands and coastal areas.

IUCN plays a critical role in supporting protected areas worldwide, publishing the United Nations List of Protected Areas, convening the World Congress on National Parks and disseminating guidelines on protected area management issues. Drawing upon its global network of experts, IUCN identifies categories of threatened species and produces species action plans as well as Red Data Books and Red Lists, publications that detail the status and conservation needs of endangered species.

IUCN has helped 75 countries to develop and implement conservation and biodiversity strategies. Since the 1990s, IUCN has focused increasingly on social policy as well as the economic dimensions of natural resource management. IUCN has worked to develop its social and economic literacy and to bring social scientists together with biologists and ecosystem managers to take an integrated approach to conservation.

REPORT OF THE EARTH FORUM

Maritta Koch-Weser, IUCN Director General, welcomed participants, emphasizing the importance of expanding dialogue beyond the inner environment circle and suggested that future Earth Forums be held on the margins of climate change or CBD meetings. Prince Talal Ibn Mohammad read a letter on behalf of King Abdullah II, which noted that Jordan's environmental commitment is an essential component of building a culture of peace. Maurice Strong, Earth Council Chairman, said the Earth Forum is designed as a "town hall" of the global village to open dialogue on big questions but not to exhaustively examine all issues. Klaus Schwab, President, World Economic Forum, explained that the Earth Forum would address four thematic sessions. The following is a summary of these sessions.

IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE?

José Maria Figueres Olson, former President of Costa Rica, called for a change in development trends and for encouraging sustainability-oriented business. He supported the creation of international development indicators and the development of "bio- literacy" among new generations. Ralph Petersen, CEO of an international environmental consulting firm, CH2Mhill, noted that although eco-efficiency is part of the new corporate mindset, the operational terms of sustainability should be defined.

Marshall Gysi, Managing Director, International Federation of Consulting Engineers, presented guidelines committing industries to, and involving all stakeholders in, the goals of sustainable development. Alicia Barcena, Director of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, stressed the importance of bioregional approaches like the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, and of changing investment patterns, such as through the emerging global environmental services market.

Issues raised during the discussion included: food security; the North's failure to meet sustainable development financing responsibilities; the need for global ethical principles; and the International Organization for Standardization's tool for sustainable business practices (ISO 14,000).

In closing, panelists suggested actions to achieve sustainable development, develop political support, collect and disseminate information for decision making and consensus building, complete the Business Social Responsibility Code, eliminate perverse subsidies, pay for environmental services, and develop a tax system based on natural resource use.

CIVIL SOCIETY: "LOYAL" OPPOSITION OR PARTNERS IN GOVERNANCE?

Elizabeth Odio, Vice President of Costa Rica, emphasized that addressing poverty must be a first priority in protecting the environment. She underscored local community involvement for natural resource protection, noting that Costa Rican national parks are co-managed with civil society. Yolanda Kakabadse, IUCN President, expressed concern over demonstrations in Seattle and Prague at recent WTO and IMF meetings, respectively, where she saw the interests of environmental NGOs being subsumed by those of other groups.

Claude Martin, Director General, WWF International, urged greater media involvement to divert attention from demonstrations to the substance of the debates. He commended cross-sectoral partnerships, such as the Forest Stewardship Council. Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Executive Director, said the poor must be given the opportunity to organize and voice their interests, and underscored the importance of land tenure and democratically elected decision makers. Maximo Kalaw, Executive Director, National Council for Sustainable Development Programme, said public interest is omitted from markets and is thus the responsibility of civil society. He said civil society, economics and politics must converge to form a political process for democratic development policies, and called for basic human security rights.

During the discussion, participants remarked that promises for debt cancellation should be respected, civil society varies in developed and developing countries, and partnerships must be better defined. Töpfer cited the Global Compact as a model of partnership. Martin said the public and media are looking for good stories and stressed that the world is governed by information, not just civil society.

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS: HOW DO WE DEAL WITH THEM?

Mark Halle, European Director and Coordinator, IISD-IUCN Joint Environment and Security Task Force, identified resource scarcity, environmental mismanagement, and growing population and consumption levels as root causes of violent conflicts

Richard Matthew, Assistant Professor of International and Environmental Politics, University of California at Irvine, highlighted environmental stress and resultant social impacts, including increased vulnerability to natural disasters and violent conflicts. Mohamed Sahnoun, Special Advisor to the UN Secretary General, said most violent conflicts are caused by the combination of environmental degradation and economic and social predicaments.

Juan Mayr, Minister of Environment of Colombia, discussed general issues of local, national, regional and global environmental conflict including: identifying stakeholders; finding a common language; and seeking innovative, creative solutions. Frans van Haren, Ambassador of the Netherlands to Brazil, focused on a new conflict management initiative, the International Ombudsman Center for Environment and Development (OmCED), an investigation and mediation approach to be developed in cooperation with NGOs and stakeholders. The center will be established on a pilot basis by the Earth Council and the United Nations University for Peace in cooperation with IUCN.

In the ensuing discussion, one participant highlighted that communities and individuals feel insecure as a result of poor environmental conditions, yet global spending on military security exceeds environment budgets by billions.

CAN WE AFFORD THE FUTURE?

Timothy Wirth, President of the United Nations Foundation, proposed titling Rio+10 the Conference on Globalization and the Environment, to focus on the connections between the environment, poverty and globalization. Jose Goldemberg, University of São Paulo, stressed the need to reduce fossil fuel use and to redirect developing country energy funding into sustainable projects.

Yasuo Goto, Chairman Emeritus, Keidanren Committee on Nature Conservation, discussed the initiatives of Keidanren, a federation of Japanese economic organizations supporting nature conservation in the Asia Pacific region. Joe Firmage, Chairman & CEO, Project Voyager, described the rapid developments in Silicon Valley and called for a "reprogramming" of the economic machine. Joke Waller- Hunter, Environment Directorate, OECD, questioned whether we are spending enough to ensure the type of environmental future people want and stressed looking at social benefits of environmental investments.

During the discussion, one participant stressed addressing sustainability in the North. Waller-Hunter highlighted the importance of investment in human capital, and Firmage distinguished between capitalism and the free market and called for identification of systemic challenges.

REPORT OF THE MEETING

OPENING CEREMONY

Queen Noor of Jordan officially opened the Congress at the Amman Roman Theater, requesting a moment of prayer for those suffering in the region. Ruba Assaf, Jordanian Television, welcomed participants, noting that the Congress marks the largest environmental meeting ever held in the region. Mohammad Halaikah, Deputy Prime Minister of Jordan, underscored Jordan's commitment to the environment, highlighting the process underway for establishing a Ministry of Environment. He championed IUCN's debt for nature initiative and emphasized IUCN's advocacy role in assisting governments to address issues such as trade liberalization, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and transboundary concerns. Highlighting Jordan's awareness of environmental sources of conflict, he stressed Jordan's determination to ease conflict through transboundary cooperation to manage scarce resources.

Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Executive Director, delivered good wishes from UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. He said conservation and development must be made the twin criteria of human progress, and stressed the need to learn to live off of nature's dividends instead of its capital. Regarding biodiversity, he noted the serious economic and social costs of its loss and stressed that respect for ecological diversity implies respect for human diversity. He flagged environmental security as an element of future peace policy. Maurice Strong, Chairman of the Earth Council, noted the lack of progress since UNCED, said the Earth Charter is still unfinished business and suggested a new focus on the involvement of civil society and development of partnerships. He stressed that the role of civil society has increased, with globalization as a focal point, and urged the Congress members to give the Earth Charter their blessing.

Yolanda Kakabadse, IUCN President, expressed gratitude to Queen Noor for her dedication to IUCN. She said current environmental devastation is beyond human comprehension and identified biodiversity loss as the world's most pressing crisis.

Queen Noor welcomed participants on behalf of King Abdullah II and regretted that he was not present due to State duties. She remarked that King Hussein had also been a supporter of the Congress. She noted that although IUCN has been effective at the grassroots, national and international levels, regional issues have been neglected. She stressed that environmental security cannot exist without peaceful cooperation between States, and that environmental protection is a pre-requisite for socioeconomic security. She flagged water scarcity as the main source of conflict.

INTERACTIVE THEMATIC SESSIONS

Participants met in parallel thematic sessions on Thursday, 5 October, and Saturday, 7 October. Representatives from each session reported on outcomes in a plenary session on Monday, 9 October. The following is a summary by theme.

LOOKING AT THE BIG PICTURE: ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT IN MOUNTAINS, WATERSHEDS AND RIVER BASINS: David Sheppard, Head of IUCN's Programme on Protected Areas, outlined the session's objectives to exchange experience, tools and guidelines, and build new alliances. Kenton Miller, newly elected World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) Chair, addressed defining ecosystem management with particular attention to issues of scale and cross- sectoral cooperation. The bioregional approach, showcased during the sessions, encompasses core areas, buffer zones and corridors as fundamental components.

Mountain ecosystems - opportunities and challenges: Panelists presented cases from the Andes, Himalayas and the Alps. Speakers highlighted the need to link upland mountain conservation with lowland water supply.

River basins - flow of life or shared problems?: Panelists presented cases from the Okavango Delta, the Baltic countries and the Amazon region. Corridor networks emerged as a key conservation management approach.

Transboundary resource management and conservation - a tool for regional cooperation, confidence building and peace keeping efforts: Panelists presented cases from Mesoamerica, Southern Africa, Australia and the Arctic. Despite the geographical diversity, key elements identified for transboundary projects included: international cooperation; a regional landscape focus, linking smaller projects; long-term commitment; institutional complexity and stability; diverse approaches; and partnerships. These elements also emerged as critical to the general approach of ecosystem, or landscape level, management. This session called for: political leadership; developing a shared vision; building vertical and horizontal partnerships; developing internal and external funding mechanisms; identifying benefits for people; adopting flexible strategies; involving all Commissions; and building an ecosystem management strategy in the IUCN programme and introducing it in the CBD.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF ISLAND, COASTAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS: Lloyd Gardner, WCPA Jamaica, facilitated the session.

The IUCN Strategic Plan: Diane Tarte, IUCN Regional Councillor, Australia, presented the key themes of the Plan, including habitat conservation, protection from land-based activities, sustainable fisheries and effective governance. A participant highlighted IUCN's focus on coral reefs and noted over 50 "dead zones" throughout the world, caused by land-based pollution sources.

The UNEP Global Programme of Action: One panelist suggested greater cooperation with IUCN to, inter alia, promote an ecosystem approach and develop performance indicators. Another suggested ways to mobilize private sector funding and highlighted the links between marine conservation, poverty alleviation, food security and human health. During the discussion, participants addressed implementation, including sewage, waste management and actions to curb persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Russia.

Networking for the 21st century: Panelists presented an Internet "vertical portal" project for IUCN that would allow users to search sorted and edited information on specific areas of marine conservation.

The Red Sea Marine Peace Park: Participants learned about this park, which was created on the Aqaba coast to protect the local marine environment, provide scientific baseline data and develop a monitoring regime. They further discussed, inter alia, threats faced by the Gulf of Aqaba, integrated management systems, the need for education and public awareness, and the socioeconomic effects of marine degradation.

Protecting essential habitats: One panelist overviewed a Latin American-Caribbean habitat protection initiative, which delineates bio-geographic units and prioritizes action based on levels of threat. Another addressed, inter alia: threats faced by marine habitats; emerging issues for marine protected areas (MPAs); building systems for MPAs to curtail the challenges faced by isolated or fragmented areas such as islands; integrated coastal management; community involvement in MPAs; effectively managing MPAs; and fisheries management.

Promoting sustainable fisheries: Participants heard a presentation on an ecosystem approach to managing the Australian prawn fishery. Panelists identified initiatives to curb the negative effects of poor management, overfishing, and extensive by-catch.

Overall, the session stressed reaching beyond protected areas to a broader ecosystem approach. It called on the IUCN programme to address habitat protection, land-based sources of marine pollution, sustainable fisheries, governance and communication mechanisms.

ENVIRONMENT AND SECURITY: A NEW STRATEGIC ROLE FOR IUCN: Can the human and economic costs of war and disaster be reduced through greater investment in environmental conservation and resource management?: This session, chaired by Mark Halle, examined the linkages between conservation, conflict and vulnerability to disaster. Panelists presented: an overview of the academic debate; impacts of Indonesian deforestation; sources and impacts of conflict in Rwanda; roots of insecurity in Northwestern Pakistan; Hurricane Mitch and disaster risk mitigation in Central America; NGOs' roles; and legal tools for conservation in times of conflict.

How is environmental security relevant to IUCN's work programme?: Jeff McNeely, Senior Scientist for IUCN, stressed the need to incorporate contingency planning into conservation programme design. Mohamed Sahnoun, Chair of the Task Force on Environment and Security, emphasized the importance of international mechanisms to hold decision makers accountable for human rights violations and environmental destruction during war. A participant called on IUCN to establish an environment and security project fund.

A way forward?: Participants noted that, while many IUCN activities incorporate security aspects, further integration is needed. Participants recommended that IUCN: host an international conference on environment and security; expand the Task Force's mandate to include research on private sector issues, the role of the military and the role of environmental conditions in disaster vulnerability; combine academic knowledge with field experience of IUCN members for use by policymakers; build regional awareness of the relationship between environment and security; engage new stakeholders; fund environment and security projects around world; and advocate for peace.

FORESTS FOR LIFE: FOREST ECOSPACES, BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY: Livelihood security and forests: After introductions by David Cassells, Chair of IUCN's Forest Conservation Advisory Group, this panel examined issues related to: non-timber forest products (NTFP), in particular wild food; contested boundaries between local communities and state agencies and methods of resolving conflict; and addressing poverty through the incentive approach by linking income potential to forest conservation. Participants discussed how NTFP could be reflected in the national economy and instances when community control could detract from conservation goals.

'Natural' disasters?: The panel discussed: root causes of vulnerability, including the population explosion, deforestation and war; the increasing frequency and intensity of forest fires and the attendant human health, ecological and economic ramifications; and the need to undertake socioeconomic analyses of human-caused forest fires in Russia. Participants touched upon the lack of empirical data on how forests mitigate effects of floods and hurricanes, post-disaster restoration potential and the acute need for public forest fire prevention campaigns.

Linking policy and practice: Panelists considered how: non-forest sector policies such as structural adjustment impact forests; community participation has become a central feature of forestry management; and expanding international and national legal mechanisms governing forests impact local communities. During a discussion, participants examined who makes laws and the need to build forest management capacity in local communities.

Move to action: In considering possible actions for IUCN, participants considered the following themes: the uneven value attributed to natural resources by developed and developing countries; global forest regimes and sovereignty over forests; and the implications of shifting forest management from state to local control. They suggested IUCN could enhance the cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder approach and assist the World Bank to mainstream environment policy.

ECOSPACES AND A GLOBAL CULTURE FOR SUSTAINABILITY: Sustainable fishing: is selectivity the answer?: Eduardo Fernandez, SSC, chaired this session. On selective fishing and sustainability, a panelist noted a demonstrated increase in global awareness of sustainable fisheries management and stressed that by-catch will be the key issue in the new century. Participants provided accounts on: the impact of global fisheries on sharks; fisheries management in Japan; and the effect of fishing on seabird populations.

Regarding marine ecosystems, the session stressed that: fisheries evaluation should distinguish between impacts on resources and ecosystems; no single answer to the by-catch issue exists; and more research is required on the ecosystem level.

Who are the CBD stakeholders?: One panelist identified indigenous people, local communities, governments and UN agencies as stakeholders, and stressed the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Focusing on equity and sustainability, another panelist noted that the lack of property rights, appropriation of indigenous knowledge, loss of biodiversity and attempts to attribute a value to natural resources all contribute to inequity within the context of biodiversity. A participant stated that sustainable development within the CBD framework should be based on current local and national realities.

MAKING WAVES - STRATEGIES FOR AVERTING THE WORLD WATER CRISIS: Latest on the water front: This panel, chaired by Delmar Blasco, Secretary General, Ramsar Convention, addressed whether global water policy is integrated and seeking a common target. Panelists presented: the outcomes of the 2nd World Water Forum; the Global Water Partnership's (GWP) framework for action; the World Commission on Dams' impact assessment and resultant guidelines; the Ramsar Convention guidelines on integrated river basin management; and IUCN's Water Crisis Strategy.

How much water do wetlands and rivers need?: Sir Martin Holdgate, former IUCN Director General, chaired this session. Mike Acreman, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK, addressed technical methods for river flow management to meet, inter alia, environmental, recreational and energy needs. Jacob Nkate, Minister of Land and Housing, Botswana, described competing national and regional water resource demands and ecosystem pressures within the Okavango Delta.

A panel discussed: legislation to maintain water flows in freshwater ecosystems; the need for technical capacity to assess ecosystem water flow; accurately pricing water; indirect human dependence on water systems; and integrated management plans involving all stakeholders.

Developing IUCN's freshwater work: Khalid Mohtadullah, GWP Executive Secretary, chaired this session. On water issues in the Middle East, Elias Salameh, University of Jordan, described political issues arising from sharing the scarce resource among nations and the growing stress from immigration and increased demand for industrialization and agriculture. He projected that the decline in water quality will prove a greater problem than limited quantity. During the panel discussion, participants suggested decentralizing water management and noted that the issue of water quality could provide an avenue for integrating environmental aspects into centralized water management agencies. Participants also drew attention to: the relationship between living standards and water demand; the impact of climate change on rainfall; loss of water through leaky infrastructure; managing water holistically; and accurately valuing water.

Regarding sustainable management of the Panama Canal catchment, presenters highlighted its integrated management system, which involves stakeholders and encompasses conservation and poverty alleviation. In the subsequent panel discussion, participants stressed the importance of, inter alia: involving stakeholders; tailoring management to the region; political will; and scientific research for sound decisions. The session concluded that water allocation is a social, economic and political choice requiring tools, legislation and effective participation, and that safe drinking water makes for lasting peace.

MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE FOR BIODIVERSITY: Generating, processing and transferring biodiversity knowledge - vital ingredients for conservation: This session, chaired by Joke Waller-Hunter, Director for Environment, OECD, reviewed the ways IUCN and its partners manage knowledge. Presentations included an overview of current practices within IUCN and its Commissions, followed by a description of tools for knowledge sharing: the World Conservation Monitoring Centre's database of Protected Areas; the Environmental Law Information and Learning Programme's online conservation law database (ECOLEX); the Asia Pacific Centre for Environmental Law's education programme; the WWF 'Conservation College'; the SSC Species Information Services (SIS); knowledge management in the Arabic region; the World Resources 2000 Report's communication strategy; knowledge networks as tools for institutional collaboration; and knowledge practices at the World Bank and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

The importance of access to information: Adel Farid Abdel-Kader, CEDARE, stated that ecologically viable development in an arid region with high population growth is only possible through knowledge management. Bart Romijn, AID Environment, noted that many need IUCN's high quality knowledge and that it should be better delivered. Peter Croal, CIDA, cautioned that the rush to new communications technology must not ignore developing country information needs, which can often be met effectively through radio use. Another participant noted that language barriers restrict access to information.

The main outcome was identification of the need for a knowledge management strategy. A working group was formed to ensure that an IUCN culture toward knowledge management is established.

AGRICULTURE, BIODIVERSITY, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY: Farming in drylands: On desertification and sustainable development in African drylands, Walter Lusigi, World Bank, addressed development prospects, community-based natural resources management and non- farm opportunities. In a presentation on agro-biodiversity, Mohammed Ajlouni, Jordan Dryland Agro-biodiversity Project, outlined reasons for loss of biodiversity in Jordan, including exotic species introduction and tourism. John Benson, Royal Botanical Gardens, presented solutions to ecological threats to Australian rangelands, including eliminating predators damaging landscapes and ceasing land clearing.

Farming in wetlands: On degradation of the Mekong Delta, Kosal Mam, Wetlands International, described the impacts of land conversion, dams, irrigation and agro-chemicals on habitats and agriculture. Rene Marin, Circulo de Estudios Cientificos Aplicados, presented the Panama Macanas Reserve Project on wetlands and identified problems linked to pesticide use, cattle ranching, horticulture, fishing and forest cropping.

Farming in temperate areas: Chris Howe, WWF, overviewed the effects of the EU Common Agriculture Policy on agriculture and the environment. Regarding US agricultural policy, Annie Kirschenmann, International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), outlined inconsistencies in US agencies' conservation and agriculture programmes. A presentation by Alexander Karpov, Society of Naturalists, on opportunities for sustainable agriculture in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) focused on socioeconomic and technological capacity, productivity, resource use and strategies.

Business impacts and influence on agriculture: On the theme of vertical integration, Peter Nowicki, Imperial College at Wye, discussed ways to ensure that farmers profit from the added value derived from agricultural products.

The trade debate: Wilfrid Legg, OECD, addressed the work of the OECD in reconciling agricultural trade and environmental policy goals, suggesting that trade liberalization and agricultural policy reform would help agriculture's domestic environmental performance. Vandana Shiva, Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology, demonstrated how trade liberalization negatively impacts biodiversity and brings about environmental and social deregulation, stressing that the biggest challenge in reforming trade rules is accommodating global inequalities and the cost of environmental degradation.

GMOs' intrinsic value and impacts: On the role of GMOs in food security, Zhangliang Chen, National Laboratory of Plant Genetic Engineering, demonstrated how GMOs are safe for the environment and for animal and human health. Bernward Geier, IFOAM, presented organic culture as an alternative to gene technology. He highlighted GMOs' threat to biodiversity and production and social patterns. Participants raised issues related to: the precautionary principle, the CBD and the Biosafety Protocol; consumers' rights; food distribution; technological follow-up; acceptable gene transfer; and IUCN's position.

The session recommended that IUCN develop methods of assessment for multi-functionality and guidelines for integration of the Biosafety Protocol.

LOCAL SOLUTIONS THAT PROMOTE SOCIAL EQUITY AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY: Gender within natural resource management: Chair Khawar Mumtaz, IUCN Councillor for South and East Asia, noted that a gender policy and plan of action have been approved by the Council, and identified the session's goal to assess the effectiveness of IUCN's gender equity work. Panelists spoke about mainstreaming gender in IUCN, noting that: gender awareness has improved; IUCN is working on developing quantitative and qualitative indicators of change regarding gender issues; and more training and capacity building and gender guidelines for new IUCN projects are needed. One panelist reported that IUCN's internal gender audit found that: women are not part of IUCN's senior management; all Commission Chairs are male; and Commissions have no specific gender mainstreaming activities. Panelists also stressed that gender equity is a prerequisite for sustainable development and a basic human right. Presentations addressed gender connections to ecosystem management issues in Mesoamerica and North Africa.

Indigenous people and traditional communities in protected areas: Chair Joanna Sutherland, Commission on Environment and Law, said the session aimed to assess progress in meeting three resolutions adopted by the 1996 Congress: establishing a collaborative management working group; ensuring that indigenous property rights and CBD implementation issues are addressed; and developing appropriate policies and programmes for indigenous peoples. Speakers discussed recognition of indigenous peoples' rights to participate in protected areas management, drawing examples from Belize, South Asia, China and East Africa. Participants stressed, inter alia: the importance of livelihood security; the need to develop direct dialogue with local communities; balancing social and conservation concerns; recognizing and securing tenure rights; reversing past policies of expropriation and eviction; recognizing the link between cultural and biological diversity; changing to an inclusionary model; building on traditional knowledge and institutional structures; social equity as a human right and a conservation aid; and development of an IUCN indigenous peoples' advisory group. The session recommended, inter alia, building more capacity for participatory management and expanding IUCN's base of social scientists.

DEVELOPING AND INVESTING IN BIODIVERSITY BUSINESS: Global business partnerships: Mark Rose, Executive Director, Flora and Fauna International, shared experiences from working with BP Amoco to mainstream biodiversity conservation into its operations. Wouter Veening, Netherlands IUCN Committee, outlined an integral biodiversity assessment system developed to evaluate green projects. Dan Biller, OECD, discussed financial mechanisms for creating markets for biodiversity, including non-market transfer payments, financial institutions and investment funds. Robert Barrington, Earthwatch Institute, overviewed corporate biodiversity strategies, underscoring harnessing businesses' skills, resources, operational reach and impact to conserve biodiversity. Christopher Holz, Conservation International (CI), addressed conservation tourism, underscoring regional capacity development, a biological corridor approach, and local community and private sector involvement.

Gordon Shepard, WWF, explained how the Forest Stewardship Council's forest product certification programme was developed. Antonio Compagnoni, IFOAM, highlighted conservation agriculture through case studies from dairy and agriculture cooperatives in Italy. Dorota Matera, IUCN Poland, spoke about organic farming in Central and Eastern Europe. Paul Holthus, Marine Aquarium Council, detailed certification for sustainability in the collection, commerce and culture of marine ornamentals.

Investing in biodiversity economics: Zeke Oman, International Finance Corporation (IFC), overviewed IFC's biodiversity projects. Philipe Lisbona, A2R, detailed the Terra Capital Fund, which invests in organic agriculture, aquaculture, native species reforestation, non-timber forest products and nature tourism. Constantine Bartel, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), discussed the Kijani Initiative, which develops and invests in biodiversity business in Africa. Isidore Gwashure, African Wildlife Foundation, detailed the work of the Foundation, which facilitates stakeholder collaboration. Jennifer Morris, CI, described activities of CI's Conservation Enterprise Fund, which invests in biodiversity hot spots globally. Nicole Casellini, IUCN Vietnam, discussed organic farming, traditional knowledge and genetic resources in Vietnam. Tammy Newman, The Nature Conservancy, detailed the EcoEnterprise Fund, a venture capital fund investing in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Daniele Giovannucci, World Bank, discussed sustainable coffee markets in Chiapas and El Salvador, underscoring collaboration. He supported certification to ensure marketplace credibility, capture niche markets and cement the link between commerce and conservation. Juan Marco Alvarez, Salva Natura, shared experiences with the "Eco OK" coffee certification programme in El Salvador. Frank Vorhies, IUCN Economics Unit, overviewed the World Heritage Enterprise Project, which invests to enhance the conservation status of world heritage sites.

INTEGRATING BIODIVERSITY SCIENCE INTO ENVIRONMENT POLICY AND MANAGEMENT: Biological research priorities to achieve conservation: Tim Sullivan, Chicago Zoological Society, acted as facilitator. Panelists outlined: current priority research areas for biodiversity including habitat loss, fragmentation, overexploitation, exotic species, pollution and climate change; the implications of local and commercial bushmeat consumption for conservation in tropical forests; methods for exchange of scientific information and local knowledge between biologists and artisanal fishers, in particular regarding seahorse populations; strategies and policies to address invasive species, particularly grey squirrels in Europe; ways to conserve fragmented landscapes by establishing biodiversity corridors; research priorities for designing effective marine reserve networks; and ecological implications of economic crises. Panelists focused on how to make research relevant and accessible for local communities and decision makers.

Working groups: Participants broke into working groups to consider interactions between scientists and practitioners and how to better integrate information from biological science into policy and management. On the first topic, participants noted that scientists must provide user-friendly data, clear data maps and information on ecological restoration and economic valuation of biological functions to practitioners while working with a multidisciplinary approach. Participants suggested practitioners could benefit from understanding the value and limits of science, taxonomic methodology and emerging scientific areas including genetics, metapopulation dynamics and geographic information systems (GIS). On integrating scientific information into policy, group members stressed that scientists must improve synthesis of information, understand core cultural differences, ensure that science is relevant and make information accessible in a timely manner.

THE ECOLOGICAL LIMITS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: Brett Orlando, IUCN Climate Change Programme Officer, provided an overview of climate change within IUCN's new programme. Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, discussed the linkages between climate change and the sustainable use of natural resources. Janos Pasztor, Information and Outreach, UNFCCC, briefed participants on key issues within the UNFCCC. On carbon sequestration and biodiversity, political will and technical viability emerged as critical elements to ensure environmentally sound sequestration projects.

Nick Davidson, Ramsar Convention Deputy Secretary General, suggested that IUCN develop a framework for joint activities between adaptive management of wetlands and climate change. Lynn Holowesko, WCPA, called for increased initiatives on the restoration of damaged marine ecosystems. Richard Sandbrook, IUCN Regional Councillor for Western Europe, stressed that climate change mitigation measures could help address the equity issue that divides the North and South.

Climate change vulnerability and adaptation: Participants divided into regional groups for discussion. The Middle East group suggested developing national climate change action plans. The OECD group proposed that IUCN track scientific results and distribute this information to governments and civil society. The Pacific and Southeast Asia Group recommended that IUCN build capacity for negotiation. The Latin America Group proposed that IUCN create a separate commission on climate change.

Overall, session participants highlighted the need for IUCN to: create links between climate change and IUCN's core actions; improve understanding of climate change effects on nature and society; strengthen climate change adaptation techniques; ensure equitable solutions that support biodiversity; and build IUCN's capacity to tackle climate change and effectively participate in decisions.

AGENDA ITEMS CONSIDERED BY THE CONSERVATION CONGRESS

The Congress convened in nine plenary sittings over the course of the meeting to hear reports from the President, Director General and Commission Chairs, as well as to approve the new Commission mandates, the programme, the budget, membership-related matters and resolutions. The following is a summary of Congress debates and outcomes by agenda item.

PRESIDENT'S REPORT: President Yolanda Kakabadse raised several issues: IUCN's liquidity crisis of 1999; efforts to assess and make IUCN's work more effective; and IUCN's recently-granted observer status at the United Nations.

THE DIRECTOR GENERAL'S REPORT: Director General Maritta Koch-Weser presented accomplishments since the 1st World Conservation Congress held in 1996, reporting significant growth and ongoing decentralization. She overviewed the new IUCN programme and budget framework, which focuses on knowledge, empowerment, governance and operations (KEGO) in seven key result areas. Koch-Weser identified goals to attain prior to the 3rd World Congress, including to: implement the new programme; follow up on initiatives from this Congress; improve the quality of service to Commissions, members and the Council; implement the new management systems and new initiatives for business development and outreach; and pursue growth in membership and services. The Congress took note of this report.

REPORTS OF THE CHAIRS OF THE COMMISSIONS: The Congress heard and considered the flowing reports.

Species Survival Commission (SSC): SSC Chair David Bracket overviewed programme priority areas: species information service; the Red List Programme; sustainable use; the Wildlife Trade Programme; the Plant Conservation Programme; invasive species; and digital libraries. He said SSC is developing fisheries-related programmes and a focus on trade in medicinal plants.

Commission on Environmental Law (CEL): CEL Chair Nicholas Robinson highlighted CEL's attempt to establish a legal order to enhance social equity and sustain biodiversity and ecosystems. He highlighted CEL's strategic goal to advance environmental law together with scientific understanding.

Commission on Education and Communication (CEC): CEC Chair Frits Hesselink said the Commission's role is to advocate education and communication as tools for conservation and capacity building.

Commission on Environmental Economics and Social Policy (CEESP): CEESP Chair Tariq Banuri detailed progress of working groups on ethics, governance, technology, co-management, trade and environment, coastal zones and environment and security.

Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM): CEM Chair Edward Maltby reviewed CEM's mission, structure, activities, achievement and collaborative approach. He noted the success of regional workshops.

World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA): WCPA Chair Adrian Phillips highlighted WCPA's goals, including: promoting best practice guidelines, collaborating with other Commissions, encouraging the exchange of experience among protected area managers, developing a global database, assessing project effectiveness and assisting global conventions. Phillips announced the launch of the WCPA website, a new focus on marine and mountain areas, and the upcoming World Parks Congress in Durban, South Africa in mid-2003, themed "Benefits Beyond Boundaries."

COMMISSION REVIEWS: Gabor Bruszt, Team Leader of the External Review, reported on the Review (CGR/2/2000/3), reinforcing that the Commissions are the biggest assets of IUCN. He stressed that the Commissions must have a unique competence base, a clear focus and a critical mass of membership, which only the SSC, WCPA and CEL have achieved. Bruszt suggested future goals, including: joint programming of each Commission with other units of IUCN; concentration of CEC target areas; integrating CEL and Environmental Law Center fundraising; increasing membership of and justification for CEM; and clarifying the focus and improving the performance of CEESP. Delegates expressed concern about the future of CEESP, stressing its importance in giving a voice to the concerns of developing nations. The Congress took note of the review.

COMMISSION MANDATES: The Congress approved the following mandates (CGR/2/2000/8), which outline the mission, objectives, priorities, structure and organization of each Commission for 2001-2004. The CEESP mandate was adopted in a resolution (CGR2.GOV002).

CEM provides expert guidance on integrated management of natural and modified ecosystems by: assisting stakeholders in identifying crucial ecosystem management issues and developing solutions; advising decision-makers on priority issues; and distilling key developments in ecosystem science.

CEC advocates strategic use of communication and education to promote learning and empower stakeholders. It allows IUCN members, Commissions and staff to, inter alia, effectively manage and integrate education in policies, engage stakeholders and undertake marketing.

CEL endeavors to advance environmental law, mostly through: expertise to governments on environmental law and sustainability; innovation and promotion of new or reformed legal concepts for nature conservation; building countries' capacity to implement and enforce environmental law; and providing education and information on environmental law.

SSC serves as the principle source of advice to IUCN on the technical aspects of species conservation, seeks to mobilize global action for species conservation, in particular species threatened with extinction and those important for human welfare, and encourages production and consumption patterns that promote biodiversity conservation.

WCPA promotes the establishment of a worldwide representative network of terrestrial and marine protected areas. It strives to: integrate protected areas into all sectors by strategic advice to policy makers; strengthen capacity and effectiveness of protected areas managers; and increase investment in protected areas.

INDEPENDENT EXTERNAL REVIEW OF IUCN: Koch-Weser and Richard Sandbrook, IUCN Regional Councillor for Western Europe, overviewed the external review (CGR/2/2000/2), which concluded that, inter alia: IUCN's potential was not fully realized; IUCN's previous programme was of mixed quality and lacking prioritization; IUCN's core competencies were unclear; and the programme and budget were not linked. The review commended work at the programme level, progress toward decentralization and regionalization, and regional conservation forums and committees. It suggested Congresses be held less frequently as they are costly and time consuming.

Sandbrook noted that the external review reflected a need for IUCN to move from a list of activities to developing a strategic shape and analyzed, inter alia: IUCN's distinctive competencies; knowledge management areas; instability of financing; integrating socioeconomic science and gender; monitoring and evaluation; and regional issues. Koch-Weser highlighted follow-up in progress, including: an action plan; a new programme; a new business plan; revision of headquarter functions; and discussion of governance issues. She said the review helped to plot a new course for IUCN and stressed continuous improvement.

IUCN PROGRAMME: The 2nd World Conservation Congress showcased IUCN's new streamlined programme (CGR/2/2000/9) to meet its primary conservation goals: facing the extinction crisis and restoring and maintaining ecosystem integrity. Its framework is based on seven Key Result Areas (KRAs):

  • effective management and restoration of ecosystems;

  • institutions, agreements, processes and policies;

  • incentives, including finance for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of natural
     resources;

  • equitable sharing of costs and benefits;

  • assessment of biodiversity and of related social and economic factors;

  • information management and communication systems; and

  • effective, efficient and accountable management and leadership of IUCN.

The new programme represents a significant incorporation of socioeconomic factors into the traditional biological approach of the IUCN, and a shift from a process-oriented, fragmented programme to a results-driven, integrated progamme. Projects do not have to fit exclusively into a single KRA; many overlap two or more KRAs. Each KRA sets out specific results to be achieved before the next World Congress, which are grouped around the areas of knowledge, empowerment, governance and operations. The intention of focusing IUCN's work on KRAs is to create: a programme that builds on its strengths, maximizing IUCN's impact on biodiversity conservation; a framework for organizing and funding the Secretariat and Commissions to work together and in partnership with members and others; a means for donors and partners to identify clear goals, issues, approaches, results and geographic areas to support; and a basis for monitoring and evaluating IUCN's impact and progress. A database is under development to classify programmes and help set funding priorities. Overall, delegates reacted positively to the programme, particularly horizontal integration, synergies between KRAs and socioeconomic connections. The new programme was adopted.

IUCN FINANCES 1996-2000: David Smith, acting IUCN Treasurer, presented IUCN finances (CGR/2/2000/6) noting that the period 1996-2000 was characterized by a 13% growth rate for project activities, with no increase for core expenditures. He also said that, due to late membership fees, IUCN suffered a serious liquidity crisis in 1999. The document includes sections on overall performance, field programmes, IUCN reserves, financial management issues and staff changes. Annexes comprise financial statistics and auditor's reports. Congress adopted the document.

FINANCIAL OUTLOOK 2001-2004: Smith introduced the financial outlook (CRG/2/2000/10) and underscored that it links the IUCN budget and programme by associating KRAs to the apportioning of finances. The Chair of the Finance and Audit Committee, Jorge Caillaux, reviewed the Committee's reactions to the outlook. The Committee questioned the feasibility of the proposed 8% growth and recommended: skill development for raising core funds from the private sector; clear identification of administrative costs; and improved decentralization through effective oversight by the Director General. The document contains data on projected income and expenditure and summarizes the Secretariat's fundraising policy. Congress adopted the document.

REPORT ON MEMBERSHIP AND CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT: Diane Tarte, Chair, Membership and Constituency Development Committee, overviewed membership growth since 1996 and noted unequal growth among the eight IUCN regions. She attributed enhanced participation to IUCN's recognition of national and regional committees, and to the devolution of governance responsibilities to regional offices and membership focal points (CGR/2/2000/4). Congress noted the report.

MEMBERSHIP GUIDELINES: The guidelines (CGR/2/2000/14) identify: IUCN membership (profile, size, distribution, recruitment, admission, loss of rights and withdrawal); membership rights (participation and influence, intermediate structures and identification); membership obligations (payment of dues, facilitating objectives and providing information); and relationship between members and other IUCN components. Tarte noted the guidelines are based on the 1996 revised statutes and thus incorporate IUCN regionalization efforts. Congress adopted the guidelines.

TECHNICAL REVIEW OF IUCN STATE MEMBERSHIP DUES TO TAKE EFFECT IN 2002: Adrian Phillips, Membership and Constituency Development Committee, presented the technical review (CGR/2/2000/13) and outlined the purpose of dues and the basis of calculations and introduced a technical adjustment proposal. He said this proposal reproduces the UN's new scale of assessment, which reduces the dues taken from the poorest member states. To this effect, IUCN would create a group "zero" of 27 countries that would pay half their current dues. He said that although the proposal would result in loss of income for IUCN, the purpose is to retain membership of the poorest nations. The technical review includes tables identifying: the current sliding scale of IUCN state membership dues; the proposed sliding scale; and the proposed membership dues for each group of members. It also lists countries according to their group. Congress approved the proposal.

INTRODUCTION OF MEMBERSHIP DUES FOR 2002-2004: Regarding membership dues for 2002-2004 (CGR/2/2000/12), Phillips introduced a 3% annual dues increase. He underscored the need to maintain value over time and suggested that members express support for IUCN through payment of dues, which represent 86% of IUCN's unrestricted funding and is used to finance, inter alia, member services and strategic investment. The US reaffirmed its zero nominal growth policy for the budget of international organizations and opposed the 3% increase. The Sudanese Environmental Conservation Society and Bangladesh warned that the increase would deter NGOs from joining. The Finance and Audit Committee said a new methodology would be drafted for consideration at a future World Congress and Koch-Weser suggested creating a membership mutual assistance fund for developing countries.

VOTING PROCEDURE: Delegates discussed proposed amendments to Rule 81 of the Rules of Procedure of the World Conservation Congress (Voting Procedure). Martin Edwards, IUCN Election Officer, introduced proposed amended text (CGR2/2000/CRP.007) to streamline IUCN's voting procedure, most notably to change from ranked, preference voting to simply noting votes with an "X." Delegates debated whether to retain the option to abstain from voting (paragraph d). Regarding elections of three persons out of several candidates (paragraph 81c), the Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust proposed that the procedure be amended to state that members may vote for "up to" three preferred candidates. The amended text was adopted by a vote, retaining the abstention option.

ELECTION RESULTS: A secret ballot for IUCN officers was held during the Congress. The Congress elected the following IUCN officers. President: Yolanda Kakabadse. Treasurer: Claes de Dardel. Commission Chairs: Hein van Asperen, CEM; Denise Hamu, CEC; Nick Robinson, CEL; Kenton Miller, WCPA; and David Brackett, SSC. Regional Councillors for Africa: Juliana Chileshe (Zambia); Amadou Tidiane Ba (Senegal); and Zohir Sekkal (Algeria). Regional Councillors for Meso and South America: Sônia Rigueira (Brazil); Gabriel Roberto Robles Valle (Guatemala); and Silvia Sánchez Huamán (Peru). Regional Councillors for North America and the Caribbean: Lynne Holowesko (Bahamas); Huguette Labelle (Canada); and Dan Martin (USA). Regional Councillor for South and East Asia: Nobutoshi Akao (Japan); Antonio Claparols (Philippines); and Han Xingguo, (China). Regional Councillors for West Asia: Abdulaziz Abuzinada, (Saudi Arabia); Ali Akbar (Pakistan); and Talal F. Al- Azimi (Kuwait). Regional Councillors for Oceania: Christine Anne Milne (Australia); Wren Green (New Zealand); and Suliana Siwatibau (Fiji). Regional Councillors for East Europe, North and Central Asia: Anna Kalinowska (Poland); Ivan Voloscuk (Slovakia); and Alexy Vladimirovich Yablokov (Russian Federation). Regional Councillors for West Europe: Manfred Niekisch (Germany); Alistair Gammell (United Kingdom); and Maria Purificació Canals (Spain).

COMMISSION AWARDS: Sir Peter Scott Award: This honor for SSC service was presented to Peter Jackson (United Kingdom); Marshall Murphee (Zimbabwe); and William Conway (United States).

Wolfgang Burhenne Award: This honor for CEL service, offered for the first time, was granted to the late Cyrille de Klemm (France). The Cyrille de Klemm Fund has been established in his memory.

Fred Packard Award: This award for WCPA service was presented to: the late Nancy Foster (United States); Marija Zupanicic-Vicar (Slovenia); and Adrian Phillips (United Kingdom).

In 2001, a Packard Award for Valour will be awarded to WCPA staff from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The WCPA proposes that the funding associated with the award be placed in a fund to support the families of those who have lost their lives.

RESOLUTIONS CONSIDERED

The Congress had before it 110 resolutions, relating to three categories: conservation-related, programme-related and government-related. All of the resolutions, with a few exceptions, were submitted by sponsors prior to the Conference and reviewed by the Resolutions Working Group, chaired by Angela Cropper. Cropper introduced the resolutions during Congress sittings. Over the course of the Congress, small contact groups were formed to revise the resolutions. All resolutions were adopted unless otherwise noted.

CONSERVATION RESOLUTIONS: Conservation-related resolutions secure IUCN's endorsement of a conservation effort or policy without requesting any interventions or assistance from the Secretariat.

Tiger conservation: The resolution (CRG2.CNV001 Rev.1) urges funding agencies and governments to stop investments that negatively affect tiger habitats while recommending policies reflecting increased priority for tiger conservation.

Conservation of Tibetan antelope: The resolution (CRG2.CNV002 Rev.1) recalls measures taken by China and India to conserve the Tibetan antelope, but notes that despite these measures, large scale illegal hunting, primarily for shahtoosh production, continues. IUCN members and other donors are requested to support conservation efforts in both China and India.

Conservation of river dolphins in South Asia: The resolution (CGR2.CNV003) considers that Asian freshwater dolphins are in decline, with the Yangtze species on the verge of extinction. Threats include habitat destruction, excessive fishing, pollution and killing for oil. India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh are urged to jointly create and implement an action plan to conserve river dolphins.

Conservation of dugong, Okinawa woodpecker and Okinawa rail around Okinawa Island: The resolution (CRG2.CNV004xCNV005 Rev.1) recognizes the possible construction of a US military airport on Okinawa Island, urges Japan to complete a voluntary environmental impact assessment (EIA) focusing on the dugong habitat and urges Japan and the US to fully consider the assessment results.

Conservation of the crested ibis: The resolution (CGR2.CNV006) acknowledges successful conservation efforts involving China, the public, concerned scientists and conservationists, but notes that despite these efforts the crested ibis remains highly endangered. IUCN members are encouraged to involve ornithologists to assist China's three crested ibis conservation programmes.

Conserving the Saker falcon: The resolution (CRG2.CNV007 Rev.1) requests Saker falcon range States, namely the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, with CITES and TRAFFIC, to: monitor populations; regulate procurement and international movement; and motivate conservation habits.

Southern Hemisphere albatross and petrel conservation efforts: The resolution (CGR2.CNV008 Rev.1) notes the major threat to albatross and petrel populations due to longline fisheries, pollution, disease and climate change effects. Range States are requested to participate in the next CMS session to conclude an agreement for albatross and petrel conservation.

Conservation of marine turtles in the Indian Ocean: The resolution (CGR2.CNV009) recognizes that: the habitat of marine turtles transverses many boundaries; their populations are severely threatened due to trawling-related mortality, habitat destruction and harvesting for meat and shell; and juvenile populations are poorly understood. Governments of the Indian Ocean region are urged to develop a regional conservation action plan.

Conservation of marine turtles on the Atlantic coast of Africa: The resolution (CRG2.CNV010) recalls that the six species of marine turtle found on the African coast are endangered and welcomes the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to protect these species under the CMS adopted by 17 states in May 1999. The 14 range States yet to sign the MOU are encouraged to do so.

Convention to protect the Mediterranean Sea against pollution: The resolution (CGR2.CNV011 Rev.1) urges the Convention on the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution contracting parties to ratify the new Convention's protocols in order to implement protection measures.

Conservation of Middle and Lower Parana River: The resolution (CGR2.CNV012) recalls that the Rio de la Plata River basin includes the world's largest wetland corridor; recognizes the resources it provides; and notes that human activities threaten the basin's ecological balance. International organizations are requested to support the Argentinean government to implement conservation policies.

Mining concessions and protected areas in Mesoamerica: The resolution (CGR2.CNV014) requests governments in the Mesoamerican region to grant mining and petroleum concessions in accordance with policies respecting biodiversity conservation and notes the need to establish national protected areas reflecting representative samples of Mesoamerican ecosystems.

Protected areas and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor: The resolution (CGR2.CNV015) recognizes the importance of presidential support to the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Coral Reef System. Regional governments are encouraged to declare more protected areas to preserve samples of all ecosystems in the isthmus.

Armed conflicts in natural areas: The resolution (CGR2.CNV016 Rev.1) supports conflict resolution between Panama and Colombia, which contributes to conservation efforts in natural areas endangered by armed conflict.

Conservation of the Kaisho Forest, Japan: This resolution (CGR2.CNV017) notes the biological importance of the Kaisho Forest and urges the government to conduct the 2005 World Exposition in an environmentally sensitive manner and to establish a park to conserve the forest.

Earth Charter and draft International Covenant: This resolution (CGR2.CNV018) endorses the Earth Charter, calls upon members to adopt it and thanks the Earth Council and IUCN's CEL for their efforts.

Marten's Clause for environmental protection: The resolution (CGR2.CNV019) considers the adoption, under the Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, of what is known as the Marten's Clause, which provides a juridical standard governing conduct during armed conflict. In this spirit, all United Nations member states are urged to adopt an international code of environmental protection.

Conservation of harp seals: This resolution (CGR2.CNV020) was withdrawn.

Promoting sustainable fisheries: This resolution (CGR2.CNV021 Rev.1) recommends: elimination of developed country subsidies to industrial fisheries; creation of greater transparency in the fishing agreement negotiation process; and promotion of strengthened international cooperation to improve fisheries management.

Climate change mitigation and land use: This resolution (CGR2.CNV22 Rev.1) recalls many articles contained in the Kyoto Protocol and urges the FCC to ensure that carbon sequestration supports conservation and biodiversity. The FCC is requested at its 6th session to recognize the role that land use, land use change and forestry activities play in climate change.

Drought and flood mitigation strategies: This resolution (CGR2.CNV023) recognizes that irregular climate changes may increase the incidence of floods and calls on governments to develop and implement, in a participatory way, strategies to mitigate the social and ecological degradation resulting from floods. The OECD is requested to integrate the resolution into national strategies for sustainable development.

Introduction of alien species: This resolution (CGR2.CNV024 Rev.1) recalls that alien species have been deliberately introduced into the wild with the intention of producing economic or aesthetic benefits and calls on civil society, institutions and governments to refrain from further alien introductions. Development agencies are urged to refuse support for alien introduction programmes.

Maintaining biodiversity in protected areas from negative impacts of mining exploration: This resolution (CGR2.CNV025) registers concern about the negative social and environmental impacts of mining and mineral growth exploration and recognizes that the efforts of States, NGOs and communities in this sector require strong legislative instruments. Member States are called on to legally prohibit mineral exploration and extraction in protected areas.

Indigenous peoples, sustainable use and international trade: This resolution (CGR2.CNV026 Rev.2) urges national governments to activate sustainable use practices for indigenous and local communities depending on renewable resource harvesting by eliminating tariff and non-tariff barriers. Through its sustainable use initiative, IUCN is requested to analyze how trade barriers hinder the rights of indigenous and local communities to sustainably develop.

Unexploded ordnance contamination in sites of US military activities in Panama: This resolution (CGR2.CNV027) recalls that during the 20th century, the US left a worrisome environmental legacy and now has a legal, moral and ethical obligation to mitigate its impact. The governments of Panama and the US are encouraged to negotiate the restoration of impacted ecosystems.

Protection of the Macal River Valley in Belize: This resolution (CGR2.CNV028 Rev.1) notes that Belize Electricity Limited, majority owned by Fortis Inc. of Canada, is proposing dam construction that would flood parts of the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve. The company is urged to conduct a transparent EIA and to terminate the project if the dam would negatively affect the reserve's species. The government of Belize is encouraged to maintain its record of environmental stewardship.

Establishment of an ecological corridor in the Americas: This resolution (CGR2.CNV029) recognizes the Wildlife Conservation Society proposal to create an ecological corridor in the Americas. Relevant governments and institutions are urged to officially support the initiative.

Securing the environment in Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Jerusalem: This resolution (CGR2.CNV030) was introduced in light of current regional events. Some delegations, including the US, the Russian Federation, New Zealand, Australia and Japan abstained from this resolution, questioning the appropriateness of addressing such issues at the Congress. Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan and Kuwait stressed that the resolution is not political, but concerns the environmental aspects of the conflict. The EU underscored that the Congress should not turn a blind eye, especially since environment and security was a Congress topic. The resolution was adopted. It, inter alia, expresses concern over the outbreak of violence and resulting loss of human life and environmental impact, supports efforts to end violence and protect the environment, urges the protection of civilians, and affirms that the peace process offers an opportunity to build relations to better protect human life and the environment in the region.

PROGRAMME RESOLUTIONS: The programme-related resolutions either call for new or expanded programme components, request specific activities by various programme components or call upon programme components to contribute to particular conservation efforts.

IUCN's use of its Commissions: The resolution (CGR2.PRG001 Rev.2) urges the Director General to study and enhance the voluntary work of Commissions and report to the 3rd World Congress on measures to integrate voluntary contributions in the IUCN overall programme.

Collaborative management for conservation programme: The resolution (CGR2.PRG002) requests the Director General to review lessons learned in co-management initiatives, devise means to respond to concerns contained in the conservation programme and link those elements to the IUCN programme.

Conservation of plants: Endorsing the Gran Canaria Declaration on the Need for a Global Programme for Plant Conservation, the resolution (CGR2.PRG003) urges the CBD COP-6 to consider the establishment of a strategy for plant conservation.

IUCN's work in the Arctic: Recognizing the need for an IUCN Arctic strategy and action plan, the resolution (CGR2.PRG004 Rev.2) requests IUCN to concentrate on ecosystem management, ecological integrity and environmental security in the Arctic and the rights and needs of Arctic indigenous peoples and other permanent residents of the Arctic.

Climate change, biodiversity and the IUCN overall programme: The resolution (CGR2.PRG005 Rev.2) calls on the Director General to: facilitate the formation of an inter-Commission task force to advance IUCN climate change work; support integration of ecological and social considerations of indigenous peoples and local communities in the UNFCCC and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); strengthen linkages between UNFCCC, IPCC, CBD, Ramsar and other relevant conventions; consult with Commissions on guidelines for enhancing biodiversity in areas of terrestrial sequestration of greenhouse gases; promote activities to enhance ecosystem resilience through, inter alia, creation of buffer zones and migratory corridors and protection of marine and coastal ecosystems; and support the work of NGOs and developing countries in capacity building. It further calls on WCPA to improve guidelines for minimizing and adapting to the impacts of climate change and the SSC to develop tools for weighing the threat of climate change on particular species.

Climate and energy: The resolution (CGR2.PRG006 Rev.1): urges States and the private sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use energy efficient technologies; recommends that measures to enhance carbon sequestration be undertaken based on the precautionary principle; and requests IUCN regional offices to assist UNDP in disseminating information on the World Energy Assessment.

Conservation of marine biodiversity: The resolution (CGR2.PRG007 Rev.2) calls for: ratification of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); regional, national and global collaborative management of marine protected areas; and tools for implementing effective protection, restoration and sustainable use of marine biodiversity.

IUCN marine component programme: The resolution (CGR2.PRG008 Rev.2) supports integrated strategies for addressing marine and coastal issues, and maximizing IUCN's influence on marine conservation and sustainable use.

Implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD): The resolution (CGR2.PRG009 Rev.1) calls for support to the implementation of national, sub-regional and regional action programmes for the development of arid and semi-arid zones and the Global Initiative on Desertification.

Strategic information management: The resolution (CGR2.PRG010 Rev.1) urges commitment for an information technology and information management infrastructure and requests the Director General to identify resources for an information technology strategic plan.

The World Commission on Dams (WCD): The resolution (CGR2.PRG011 Rev.1) asks that a task force be created to: advise IUCN on ways to respond to the report of the WCD; monitor responses to the WCD's recommendations; and develop partnerships with public and private stakeholders.

International academy of environmental law: The resolution (CGR2.PRG012 Rev.1) invites the CEL Chair and the Director General to collaborate with existing international and regional training and research institutions and to develop the goals, functions and structure of the academy.

Preparing for Rio+10: Calling on IUCN's valuable input in preparations and during Rio+10, the resolution (CGR2.PRG013 Rev.1) requests the Director General to form a working group for NGOs taking part in Rio+10.

Durban World Parks Congress: The resolution (CGR2.PRG014) calls on IUCN's active financial, technical and intellectual support to the Congress.

Gender policy: The resolution (CGR2.PRG015) supports: operation of the IUCN Gender and Sustainable Development Group, the Plan of Action and the Gender Equity Policy; definition of gender criteria for future projects; and gender equity indicators and mainstreaming.

Sustainable use of wild living resources: This policy statement (CGR2.PRG016 Rev.1) recognizes: the socio-economic value of consumptive and non-consumptive uses of biological diversity; the need for adaptive resource management; the limited availability of biological products and ecological services; and the need for incentives and sanctions.

Conservation of the Central African black rhinoceros: The resolution (CGR2.PRG017 Rev.1) calls on Cameroon to take all measures to ensure the future of the rhinoceros and requests the Director General to obtain donors' support for this conservation effort.

Conservation of Houbara bustard: The resolution (CGR2.PRG018 Rev.2) calls for: range States to enforce national legislation against bustard hunting; examination of the status and taxonomy of the species to ensure proper listing in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; and provision of technical and financial assistance for an action plan.

Sustainable management of Asia's major river systems: The resolution (CGR2.PRG019 Rev.1) requests a study on the feasibility of a new conservation and management mechanism and suggests convening a meeting of riparian States and local communities to discuss findings and follow-up.

Illegal and/or unsustainable trade of wildlife among and from the Mekong riparian countries: The resolution (CGR2.PRG020 Rev.1) calls for collaboration with CITES to, inter alia, increase trade impacts awareness, conduct case studies on ecological, socio- economic, cultural and ecological dynamics of wildlife trade, and improve law enforcement.

IUCN's presence in Central Asia: Recognizing the uniqueness and high vulnerability of ecological systems of Central Asia, this resolution (CGR2.PRG021) requests the Director General to promote further strengthening of IUCN's presence and activities in Central Asian countries.

Marine protected areas in the Baltic Sea: This resolution (CGR2.PRG022) urges all coastal States to establish national protected area and marine reserve systems, and that Baltic Sea countries in economic transition receive support for their establishment from countries with funds and expertise.

European mountain ecosystems: This resolution (CGR2.PRG023 Rev.1) requests the Director General to actively participate in the International Year of the Mountain in 2002 and to consider creating a Secretariat component programme on mountain ecosystems. It urges European countries with mountain ecosystems to: ensure monitoring of the adoption and implementation of the Protocols of the Alpine Convention; implement sustainable conservation projects integrating mountain peoples' cultures and traditions; and adopt specified guidelines on agriculture, urban development, transportation and tourism.

Protected areas in the Alps and Mediterranean: Recognizing the importance of cooperation among protected areas, particularly the Alpine Network of Protected Spaces, and noting the international importance of the Alps and the Mediterranean basin, this resolution (CGR2.PRG024 Rev.1) proposes the creation of cross- border protected areas in the region with the support of the WCPA and CEL.

Wild rivers of Europe: Recognizing the multiple ecological values and vulnerability of rivers, this resolution (CGR2.PRG025) encourages European countries to adjust water policies to support river preservation and restoration. It also promotes the development of international categories for classification of rivers and river valleys.

Russian forests programme: The resolution on IUCN's temperate, boreal and Southern cold temperate forests programme in Russia (CGR2.PRG026 Rev.1) encourages participation and linking conservation and sustainable use policies and practices in Russia, and supports credible forest certification.

Conservation of plants in Europe: Concerning the activities of Planta Europa, the resolution (CGR2.PRG027 Rev.1) supports, inter alia, its continued development and requests European members and relevant SSC Specialist Groups to develop a detailed action- oriented plant conservation strategy for Europe. It asks the Director General to provide support to promote the project identifying important plant areas of Europe through the SSC.

Strategic framework for the IUCN in Mesoamerica: The resolution (CGR2.PRG028) approves the 2001-2004 IUCN Strategic Framework in Mesoamerica and requests the support of the Director General and IUCN's regional councillors in its implementation.

Environmental education in the Mesoamerican component programme: This resolution (CGR2.PRG029) requests that environmental education be a central theme incorporated into all of the themes that the regional organization and its members develop.

Conserving the Panama Canal Watershed: Requesting the evaluation of environmental services provided by the Panama Canal watershed, this resolution (CGR.PRG030 Rev.1) also: urges the Panamanian authorities, organizations of civil society and affected communities to advise appropriate authorities regarding the establishment of new dams to minimize environmental and social impacts; invites Panama to undertake a participatory process to carry out studies on the expansion of the Panama Canal; and requests the Director General, with the World Bank, to promote a forum in Panama to present the WCD's guidelines.

Consolidation of IUCN's component programme for South America: This resolution (CGR2.PRG031): encourages relevant parties in South America to develop alliances to solve natural resource degradation problems; requests the Director General and IUCN's Council to link regional and national donors and investors to co- finance the South American component programme; and asks the Director General to undertake a participatory evaluation of the South America Component Programme prior to 2002.

Nature conservation on the Guyana Shield: The resolution (CGR2.PRG032) requests that governments, in close consultation with indigenous and traditional populations, continue efforts to conserve the Guyana Shield region's tropical forest through the establishment of a protected areas network while implementing WCPA's protected areas recommendations on mining and related activities and indigenous and traditional peoples.

Impacts of military activities in the Arctic: This resolution (CGR2.PRG033 Rev.1) requests the Director General to ensure that the Secretariat's Component Programme activities in the Arctic address the impacts of military activities on the environment and indigenous peoples, and asks IUCN to urge the eight circumpolar nations to undertake a region-wide survey of the issue and promote mitigation of environmental damage.

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean: This resolution (CGR2.PRG034 Rev.2) calls on all non-consultative parties to the Antarctic Treaty that have not already done so to ratify the Protocol on Environmental Protection, and urges parties to, inter alia, develop a network of protected areas and establish and enforce stringent regulations governing the conduct of all persons visiting Antarctica. It also urges governments to stop illegal fishing for toothfish and adopt and enforce measures for conservation of sub-Antarctic island ecosystems. It recommends that the capacity of the Antarctic Advisory Committee of IUCN be strengthened, and that the Committee collaborate with all relevant IUCN Commissions and contribute to raising public awareness about Antarctic and sub-Antarctic conservation issues.

Spratly Island Group Marine Sanctuary: This resolution (CGR2.PRG035) was withdrawn.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: The resolution (CGR2.PRG036) requests the support of the Director General, IUCN members, the Secretariat and CEM in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and requests that the IUCN Secretariat help to ensure that data produced reaches IUCN members.

Invasive alien species: This resolution (CGR2.PRG037 Rev.1) urges IUCN members to disseminate and promote the IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss caused by Alien Invasive Species to appropriate government and management agencies, and urges the Director General to actively work with appropriate parties and agreements to ensure they account for threats to biodiversity and economic losses from invasive alien species.

GMOs and biodiversity: This resolution (CGR2.PRG038 Rev.1) generated debate on two issues: the precautionary approach versus principle and the IUCN method for addressing GMOs. Canada, and others, preferred the precautionary approach, while Lawyers for a Green Planet, with the Sierra Club, supported reference to the precautionary principle. The final version refers to "approach" in a preambular paragraph and "principle" in the operative section regarding further releases of GMOs into the environment, and requests the Director General to support initiatives to implement the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and explore the scope for an IUCN contribution to the GMO issue.

Promoting organic agriculture to enhance biodiversity: This resolution (CGR2.PRG039 Rev.1) requests the Director General to study the potential contribution of organic agriculture to enhance biodiversity and to develop guidelines that strengthen biodiversity, energy and water conservation and cultural heritage in organic agricultural practices.

Trade liberalization and the environment: This resolution (CGR2.PRG040 Rev.1) urges IUCN to investigate the environmental consequences of trade liberalization; requests IUCN to elaborate on models of dispute settlement and compliance mechanisms; and calls on IUCN to actively promote capacity building programmes for developing countries to enable them to include environmental considerations in trade policies.

Multilateral and bilateral financial institutions and projects impacting on biodiversity and natural features: The resolution (CGR2.PRG041 Rev.2), inter alia, urges States to give appropriate protection to critical areas for biodiversity and natural features; calls on multilateral and financial institutions to refrain from investing in critical areas; and invites IUCN's Commissions to develop best practice guidelines in relation to extractive industries and infrastructure projects.

World Bank Forest Policy: This resolution (CGR2.PRG042 Rev.2) encourages IUCN assessment of the new Bank strategy and identification of potential areas for IUCN involvement, such as monitoring.

Poverty reduction and conservation of environment: This resolution (CGR2.PRG043 Rev.1) recommends that IUCN projects be designed to alleviate poverty and rehabilitate the environment.

Environmental defenders: The resolution (CGR2.PRG044 Rev.1) appreciates that environmental advocates are increasingly in danger and recognizes that for the purpose of protecting the environment, in accordance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, everyone has the right to assemble peacefully, participate in NGOs, communicate with NGOs, and submit proposals to governments. It further calls on the Director General to discourage harassment of environmental advocates.

Cooperation in conservation programmes: This resolution (CGR2.PRG046 Rev.1) requests the Council and Director General to study mechanisms that promote closer cooperation among international and national NGO members of IUCN and to encourage national and regional IUCN Committees to facilitate strategic alliances among groups. It also requests international NGOs to support national NGOs and urges funders to develop criteria for funding.

Corruption in the forest sector: This resolution (CGR2.PRG046 Rev.1) requests an analysis of forest sector corruption, including a review of policy options to eliminate corrupt practices, case studies of such policies, and an annotated directory of organizations and instruments involved in elimination of forest sector corruption. It also urges that codes of conduct for sustainable forest management (SFM) be perfected and that States and corporations abide by them.

Land use policies and legal tools for coastal conservation: This resolution (CGR2.PRG047 Rev.2) urges coastal States to: encourage permanent monitoring of coastal changes to aid development decisions; incorporate social, cultural and economic considerations into development planning; adopt legislation to minimize, inter alia, overexploitation, resource misuse, pollution, tourism impacts and exotic species introduction; and extend the protection given to terrestrial protected areas to adjacent marine areas.

Capture of marine turtles by pelagic longline fisheries: This resolution (CGR2.PRG048 Rev.1) implores the FAO to conduct a technical consultation to assess the magnitude of the incidental catch and mortality of marine turtles and urges development of an international plan of action for reducing incidental catch. It urges all State and regional fisheries bodies to collaborate to ensure that initiatives to protect species are consistent with and supportive of each other. All FAO and IUCN members are to report on progress made toward evaluating and reducing incidental marine turtle mortality within their Exclusive Economic Zones prior to the next Congress.

Private fishing and seabird mortality from longlining in the Southern Ocean: This resolution (CGR2.PRG049 Rev.1) calls on States and regional fisheries to combat pirate fishing for toothfish and to reduce the mortality of seabirds resulting from longline fishing. It recommends that fishery bodies that manage regions visited by Southern Ocean seabirds adopt an ecosystem approach. It calls upon States to accede to the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and urges States whose vessels undertake longlining in the Southern Ocean to, if appropriate, develop a national plan of action on seabirds. It calls on all range States to develop an agreement for Southern Hemisphere albatrosses and petrels under the CMS, and producers and distributors of toothfish to trade only in toothfish caught in compliance with CCAMLR.

Ocean pollution by oil: This resolution (CGR2.5PRG050 Rev.1) requests member states of the International Maritime Organization to, inter alia: modify existing legislation to reinforce preventative measures against marine petroleum pollution and hold polluters accountable; replace single-hull vessels with double- hull vessels; and undertake highly dissuasive activities against the perpetrators of waste discharge at sea. It requests States to exclude ecologically sensitive areas from maritime routes, create strictly defined sea lanes and set compensation for ecological damage equivalent to that for individuals and property. It urges IUCN to examine the environmental and economic costs of oil pollution and contribute to the CBD process on defining environmental responsibility.

Towards best practice on mining and associated activities in protected areas: This consolidated resolution (CGR2.PRG052xCNV025) welcomes all governments, the mining sector, and national and international organizations to take the WCPA position statement into account in developing and implementing policy on mining exploration and mineral extraction.

Guidelines for oil, gas and mineral exploration and exploitation in arid and semi-arid zones: This resolution (CGR2.PRG053 Rev.1) supports the CCD's development of such guidelines and requests Commission Chairs and the Director General to assist in their development.

Natural resource security in situations of conflict: This resolution (CGR2.PRG054 Rev.1) urges IUCN members to develop a greater understanding of the underlying causes of conflict, particularly ways in which conflict affects biodiversity conservation, and calls on members to bring conflict situations relating to control of natural resources to the attention of the UN Security Council.

Unsustainable commercial trade in wild meat: This resolution (CGR2.PRG055 Rev.1) advocates a global effort to identify the causes of this trade and urges States to adopt legislation to control it. It requests SSC and WCPA to increase awareness of the root causes, urge companies to control hunting and trade associated with their operations, strengthen protected areas management to control the impact of such trade, and build capacity to address the problem.

Ecological management issues relating to large dams: The resolution (CGR2.PRG056) calls on governments to develop legislation ensuring: sustainable use of river basin ecosystems; major development investment will seek to enhance and conserve river basin ecosystems; dams will not be constructed if they threaten species diversity; and effective public participation in dam planning.

Legal aspects of the sustainable use of soils: This resolution (CGR2.PRG057) welcomes the establishment of the Working Group on Legal Aspects of the Sustainable Use of Soils to prepare guidelines, principles and elements of national legislation and policy to assist States.

International Ombudsman Center for Environment and Development: This resolution (CGR2.PRG058) welcomes the establishment of the Center on a pilot basis, and requests the Director General to report on the pilot phase after it is completed.

Chinese alligator conservation: This resolution (CGR2.PRG059) encourages China to continue efforts to save its last wild populations, and urges IUCN members to support China. It requests the SSC, through its Crocodile Specialist Group, to assist China in convening technical workshops.

International biodiversity observation year (IBOY)-2001: The resolution (CGR2.PRG060) strongly endorses efforts to launch IBOY, urges IUCN members to contribute to IBOY and urges participation through implementation of biodiversity assessment activities.

GOVERNMENT RESOLUTIONS: Governance-related resolutions address issues related to the governance of IUCN, ranging from administrative issues to broad policy issues related to the proposed Quadrennial Programme.

Quadrennial programme: The resolution prioritizing considerations in the overall quadrennial programme (CGR2.GOV001) was withdrawn.

CEESP mandate: Noting that the Key Result Areas in the IUCN Programme involve a close linking between social, economic, and environmental issues, the CEESP mandate (CGR.GOV002 Rev.1) requests it to provide expertise on the crucial economic, social and cultural factors affecting natural resources and biological diversity.

Arid and semi-arid lands: The resolution on the IUCN arid and semi-arid lands programme (CGR2.GOV003 Rev.1) notes that these ecosystems occupy almost half the earth's terrestrial surface and that there is a need for research into these unique areas. The resolution supports the creation of an arid land specialists task force to, inter alia, set programme objectives and support implementation of the CCD, CBD and other relevant conventions.

IUCN regionalization: This resolution (CGR.GOV004 Rev.1): acknowledges that regionalization offers the best opportunity for IUCN to effectively implement its programmes and activities and respond to the needs of its members worldwide; calls for coherence between IUCN's global and regional programmes; and encourages communication and cooperation among regions with respect to these programmes.

Implementation and monitoring of international conventions: This resolution (CGR2.GOV005) recognizes the important role played by IUCN in preparing international agreements and supports the use of IUCN member expertise in striving for better implementation of conventions.

Establishment of an Arab region and Arabic as an official IUCN language: The resolution requests IUCN to examine the feasibility of establishing a region comprising all Arabic-speaking countries and to review the possibility of including Arabic as an official IUCN language (CGR2.GOV006 Rev.1).

IUCN's relations with the UN: The resolution (CGR.GOV007 Rev.2) recognizes IUCN's appointment as a UN Observer and the role of IUCN's Environmental Law Programme in providing a list of relevant UN environmental documents.

IUCN Mesoamerican regional office: The resolution (CGR2.GOV008) requests full international mission status from the government of Costa Rica for the Mesoamerican IUCN office.

IUCN Mediterranean programme: On establishing the IUCN Office for the Mediterranean in Malaga, Spain, the resolution (CGR2.GOV009 Rev.1) supports and promotes the activities of the Mediterranean members of IUCN.

IUCN's work in Oceania: The resolution (CGR2.GOV010) requests a review of the regional balance of the component programmes in relation to the overall programme.

Safety of IUCN personnel and associated volunteers: The resolution (CGR2.GOV011) was withdrawn.

Cooperation with parliaments: The resolution (CGR2.GOV012) calls for a MOU between IUCN and the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Broadening the base of IUCN membership: The resolution (CGR2.GOV013 Rev.2) was rejected.

Guidelines for membership admission tests: The resolution (CGR2.GOV014) was withdrawn.

Use of IUCN name and logo: The resolution (CRG2.GOV015) decides that IUCN members, national and regional Committees, Commissions and elected officials can identify themselves through the use of the IUCN name and logo.

Vote of thanks to the host country: The resolution (CGR2.GOV016) records appreciation to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Social sciences in advancing the IUCN's programme: The resolution (CGR2.GOV017) invites present and past leaders of CEESP and other relevant stakeholders to participate in a working group on conservation and the social sciences to make recommendations on integrating social sciences with the IUCN programme and activities.

Integrating ecosystem management in IUCN's programme: The resolution (CGR2.GOV018 Rev.1) outlines provisions to be included in the terms of reference of a working group on ecosystem management.

Amendments to the rules of procedure of the World Conservation Congress: The resolution (CGR2.GOV019) was withdrawn.

IUCN AND THE MEDIA SPECIAL EVENTS

REUTERS-IUCN MEDIA AWARDS: On Monday, 9 October, Queen Noor presented Reuters-IUCN Media Awards for excellence in environmental reporting to nine regional and one global winners: Ibaba Don Pedro (Nigeria); Morena Azucena (El Salvador); Souleymane Ouattara (Burkina Faso); Oscar Ugarte and Paulo Galaraza (Bolivia); Alanna Mitchell (Canada); Boris Zhukov (Russia); Lu Hong Jian (China); and Yasir Mahgoub Mohammed El Hussein (Qatar). Alanna Mitchell, Globe and Mail, received the global award for her series of articles on the vanishing forests of Madagascar. For more information, visit www.iucn.org/reuters/2000/trophies/html.

LAUNCH OF THE GLOBAL YOUTH REPORTERS PROGRAMME: On Tuesday, 10 October, IUCN launched its Global Youth Reporters Programme, a centerpiece of its Global Biodiversity Youth Awareness Campaign. Twelve 17-year-old trainee reporters from around the world and seven young Jordanians attended the Congress and prepared thematic feature stories dealing with various aspects of the environment. Queen Rania has committed to serving as a patron of IUCN's youth awareness programmes, especially the Youth Reporters Programme. A special website has been created for this project: www.iucn.org/info_and_news/gyrp.

CLOSING CEREMONY

In the closing ceremony on Wednesday, 11 October, Guatemala announced its offer to host the 3rd World Conservation Congress and presented a brief video on Guatemala. Koch-Weser noted that representatives from North Korea had attended the Congress for the first time, remarking that this provided an opportunity to celebrate environment and peace. Koch-Weser also thanked outgoing councillors and gave them a token of appreciation.

Koch-Weser expressed her sincere gratitude to Queen Noor, King Abdullah II, the late King Hussein and all royal family members who supported the Congress. She underscored the importance of the seven key result areas and encouraged participants to approach Rio +10 with a strong mandate to stop species extinction. On behalf of all commissioners, Adrian Phillips noted the clear message sent by the Congress to integrate the work between Commissions and to synthesize more effectively with the rest of IUCN. Alia Hatough, host country focal point, said Jordan was pleased to have hosted the Congress and thanked the Jordanian organizing committee, the national volunteers, the royal family and Jordanian ministers. A resolution extending warm appreciation to the Hashhemite Kingdom of Jordan (CGR2.GOV16) was adopted. In closing, Kakabadse highlighted IUCN's steps to decentralize and increase regional representation and stressed the importance of the new programme, which would help ensure accountability. The Congress adjourned at 12:00 p.m.

THINGS TO LOOK FOR

RAMSAR CONVENTION STANDING COMMITTEE: This committee will meet from 22-27 October 2000 in Gland, Switzerland. For more information, contact: Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 38 rue de Mauverney, 1196 Gland, Switzerland; tel: +41-22-999-0170; e-mail: ramsar@ramsar.org; Internet: http://www.ramsar.org/key_sc25_agenda_e.htm.

SIXTH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE: COP-6 will be held in the Hague, the Netherlands, from 13-24 November 2000. For more information contact: the UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.de; Internet: http://cop6.unfccc.int/.

FAO EXPERT MEETING ON CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT: This meeting will be held in Rome from 15-17 November 2000. For more information, contact: Christel Palmberg- Lerche, Chief, Forest Resources Development Service (FORM), Forestry Department, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy; tel: +39-06-570-53841; e-mail: christel.palmberg@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/forestry/Forestry.htm.

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS INC-5: The fifth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for an International Legally Binding Instrument for Implementing International Action on Certain Persistent Organic Pollutants will take place from 4-9 December 2000 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Conference of the Plenipotentiaries will be held in Stockholm from 21-23 May 2001. For more information, contact: UNEP Chemicals (IRPTC); tel: +41- 22-979-9111; fax: +41-22-797-3460; e-mail: dodgen@unep.ch; Internet: http://irptc.unep.ch/pops/.

CITES PLANTS AND ANIMALS COMMITTEES: The Committees will meet jointly from 7-15 December 2000 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA. For more information, contact: the CITES Secretary, 15 chemin des Anemones, 1219 Chatelaine-Geneva, Switzerland; tel: +4122- 917-8139/40; fax: +4122-797 3417; e-mail: cites@unep.ch; Internet: www.cites.org.

FOURTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION: COP-4 will take place from 11-22 December 2000 in Bonn, Germany. For more information, contact: UNCCD Secretariat, P.O. Box 260129, D-53153 Bonn, Germany; tel: +49-228-815-2800; fax: +49-228-815-2899; e-mail: secretariat@unccd.de; Internet: http://www.unccd.de.

FIRST MEETING OF THE INTER-GOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE ON THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL (ICCP-1): This meeting will take place in Montpellier, France, from 11-15 December 2000. For more information contact: Tony Gross, Officer-in-Charge, Division of Implementation and Outreach Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat, Montreal, Canada; tel: +1-514-287-7025; fax: +1-514-288-6588; e-mail: tony.gross@biodiv.org; Internet: http://www.biodiv.org/conv/meetings.html#New.

IUCN - ECOLOGY OF INSULAR BIOTAS: This conference will take place from 12-16 February 2001 in Wellington, New Zealand. It will focus on ecological patterns and processes of particular importance to isolated biotas, including true islands, natural habitat islands (e.g., ponds), and artificial habitat islands (e.g., reserves). For more information, contact: IUCN Conference Manager, Dick Veitch, 48 Manse Road, Papakura, New Zealand; tel: +64-9-298-5775; e-mail: dveitch@kiwilink.co.nz; or the IUCN Secretariat, 28 rue de Mauverney, Gland, 1196, Switzerland; tel: +41-22-999-0001; fax: +41-(22)-999-0025; e-mail: mail@hq.iucn.org; Internet: http://www.iucn.org/.

IUCN - ERADICATION OF ISLAND INVASIVES: PRACTICAL ACTIONS AND RESULTS ACHEIVED: The Invasive Species Specialist Group of IUCN will be holding an international conference on this subject at the University of Auckland, New Zealand from 19-23 February 2001. The conference will discuss "Methods of eradicating invasive species from islands and the results achieved." For more information, contact: IUCN conference manager, Dick Veitch, 48 Manse Road, Papakura, New Zealand; tel: +64-9-298-5775; e-mail: dveitch@kiwilink.co.nz; or the IUCN Secretariat, 28 rue de Mauverney, Gland, 1196, Switzerland; tel: +41-22-999-0001; fax: +41-22-999-0025; e-mail: mail@hq.iucn.org; Internet: http://www.iucn.org/.

IUCN - ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS FOR RIVER SYSTEMS: This conference will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 3-9 March 2001. The aim of the conference is to provide a forum for an international meeting of minds on the subject of managing flows for river health and to demonstrate the positive effects of environmental flows. For more information, contact: IUCN Secretariat, 28 rue de Mauverney, Gland, 1196, Switzerland; tel: +41-22-999-0001; fax: +41-22-999-0025; e-mail: mail@hq.iucn.org; Internet: http://www.iucn.org/.

NINTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: The Ninth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development will be held in New York in April 2001. This session will focus on: atmosphere; energy/transport; information for decision making and participation; and international cooperation for an enabling environment. Prior to CSD-9, intersessional meetings will be held, tentatively scheduled for 5-16 March 2001. For more information, contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, Major Groups Focal Point, Division for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963- 1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd9/csd9_2001.htm#.

2ND WORLD CONGRESS ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: The Congress will take place in New Delhi, India, from 2-3 June 2001. The congress will discuss action plans and management of green technologies and conservation of environment for ensuring substantial growth. It will focus on the trade and environment debate and discuss how environmentally sustainable development can be promoted in an increasingly globalized economy. For more information, visit http://www.wem.net/


Sustainable Developments is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) info@iisd.ca, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin �. This issue is written and edited by Leanne Burney leanne@iisd.org, Laura Ivers laura@iisd.org, Violette Lacloche violette@iisd.org and Alison Ormsby alison@iisd.org. The Editor is Lynn Wagner, Ph.D. lynn@iisd.org. The Digital Editor is Andrei Henry andrei@iisd.org. The Director of IISD Reporting Services (including Sustainable Developments) is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI kimo@iisd.org. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by IUCN. The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in Sustainable Developments are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and other funders. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <http://www.iisd.ca/>. For further information on Sustainable Developments, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at kimo@iisd.org.