Vol. 87 No. 2
SECOND INTERNATIONAL EXPERT MEETING ON A
10-YEAR FRAMEWORK OF PROGRAMMES FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND
The Second International Expert Meeting on a 10-Year Framework of Programmes for Sustainable Consumption and Production convened from 5-8 September, 2005, at the Hotel Barceló San José Palacio, in San José, Costa Rica. The meeting was organized by the Division for Sustainable Development (DSD) at the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), in cooperation with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). Over 180 experts from over 65 countries attended this event, including representatives of government agencies, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
The aims of the meeting were to further develop and assess the priorities for regional and national action and international support identified by the First International Expert Meeting, held in Marrakech, Morocco, 16-19 June 2003, identify international focal points for information exchange and cooperation on elements of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes for Sustainable Consumption and Production, explore opportunities for partnerships to work on sustainable consumption and production (SCP), and provide inputs to the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) for consideration, in particular on integrating SCP issues into the Commission’s discussions on energy, climate, air pollution and industrial development at CSD-14 and CSD-15.
The meeting was co-chaired by Viveka Bohn, Ministry of Sustainable Development, Sweden, and Allan Flores, Vice-Minister of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica. On Monday, 5 September, experts met in Plenary and were presented with keynote speeches, reports from the regional meetings, a Discussion Paper on Making the Marrakech Process Work, and participated in a discussion with a multi-stakeholder panel on key issues in SCP. On Tuesday, 6 September, and Wednesday, 7 September, participants met in five working groups addressing Production Processes and Industrial Development, Urban Planning and Waste Management, Sustainable Consumption and Product Development, National and Regional Strategies for SCP, and Energy, Climate and Air Pollution. On Thursday, 8 September, experts met in Plenary for the presentation of the working groups’ reports, and discussed future work and the Co-Chairs’ draft summary. During the meeting, participants also participated in cooperation dialogue sessions, and went on field trips to sites related to their working groups. Additionally, experts attended training workshops in the evenings. Four task forces were announced for future work on sustainable lifestyles, sustainable public procurement, cooperation with Africa, and sustainable products.
The outcome of the meeting was a non-negotiated Co-Chairs’ summary report of the meeting, including summary reports from the working groups.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF CSD, SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION, AND THE MARRAKECH PROCESS
The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) emerged from Agenda 21, the programme of action adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Agenda 21 called for the creation of the CSD to ensure effective follow-up to UNCED, enhance international cooperation, and examine progress in implementing Agenda 21 at the local, national, regional and international levels. Chapter Four of Agenda 21 highlights unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and focuses on developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in such patterns.
The CSD held its first substantive session in June 1993 and has met annually since. At its third session, in 1995, the CSD adopted an International Work Programme on Changing Consumption and Production Patterns, which addressed: trends in consumption and production patterns; the impacts on developing countries of changes in consumption patterns in developed countries; policy measures to change consumption and production patterns; voluntary commitments from countries; indicators for measuring changes in consumption and production patterns; and revision of the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection.
In June 1997, the 19th UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS-19), also known as “Rio+5,” was held to review the implementation of Agenda 21. Negotiations produced a Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. Among the decisions adopted at UNGASS-19 was a five-year CSD work programme, which identified sectoral, and cross-sectoral issues and established the main themes to be considered in the CSD’s four subsequent sessions. In the context of that work programme, sustainable consumption and production patterns continued to be an “overriding issue” on the yearly CSD agenda.
The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) convened from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa, and adopted two main documents: the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. The JPOI was designed as a framework for action to implement the UNCED commitments, and also included a number of new agreements.
Chapter III of the JPOI on “Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production” contains a section endorsing action to encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards SCP. It calls for, inter alia: the promotion of social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems by delinking economic growth from environmental degradation through improved sustainability of resource use; an increase in processes for efficient production; and reductions in resource degradation, pollution and waste generation. It further calls for integrating the issue of production and consumption patterns into sustainable development policies.
At its eleventh session, held from 28 April to 9 May 2003, the CSD adopted a Multi-Year Programme of Work for the period 2004-2017, with selected thematic clusters for detailed consideration in two-year implementation cycles. Unsustainable consumption and production was identified as a cross-cutting issue to be addressed in the context of other issues for all cycles. In addition, the 10-Year Framework of Programmes was selected for in-depth consideration in 2010/2011.
The First International Expert Meeting on a 10-Year Framework of Programmes for Sustainable Consumption and Production was held in Marrakech, Morocco, 16-19 June 2003. It was agreed that follow-up at the international level would mainly consist of coordinating activities to support regional and national initiatives and some priorities for substantive work were identified. Participants also recommended establishing informal task forces or roundtables to promote the implementation of SCP policies and strategies, and agreed to hold a second international expert meeting in 2005. The report of the Marrakech meeting was presented to CSD-12.
CSD-12 and CSD-13 constituted the first two-year Implementation Cycle, with the adoption of a resolution on policy options and practical measures to expedite implementation of policies and measures related to water, sanitation and human settlements, the three themes of the 2004-2005 thematic cluster. CSD’s 2006-2007 Implementation Cycle thematic cluster includes the areas of energy for sustainable development, industrial development, air pollution/atmosphere, and climate change.
REGIONAL EXPERT MEETINGS
Numerous regional meetings on SCP were held during the 2003-2005 period. Regional meetings in Africa took place in Casablanca, Morocco, 17-20 May 2004 and in Nairobi, Kenya, 19-20 February, 2005. Asia and Pacific regional meetings took place in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 21-23 May 2003, and in Seoul, Republic of Korea, 6-7 November 2003. In Europe a Stakeholder Meeting on SCP took place in Ostend, Belgium, November 25-26, 2004. Latin America and the Caribbean regional meetings took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 24-25 April 2003, and Managua, Nicaragua, 15-16 October 2003.
REPORT OF THE MEETING
On Monday, 5 September, Allan Flores, Vice-Minister of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica, opened the meeting and welcomed participants. JoAnne DiSano, Director, Division for Sustainable Development, UN DESA, noted that the Marrakech Process is one of the steps taken to follow up the WSSD and the JPOI. She stressed that population growth and increasing living standards will put tremendous pressure on the environment, and highlighted the need to ensure the production of necessary goods and services while reducing and reversing environmental degradation. DiSano said switching to more sustainable patterns is not easy, but it can generate environmental, social, and economic benefits with very modest capital investments. She emphasized the importance of innovation, and of addressing SCP at national and local levels.
Monique Barbut, Director, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), UNEP, said after two years of regional consultations, it was time to move towards action by focusing on priorities and developing concrete initiatives such as training courses and more informal, practical working groups. She drew links between poverty reduction and SCP, and said new programmes could simultaneously benefit the environment, economy and society, provided that the wider development community can be engaged. She highlighted new approaches in China, Japan’s 3R Initiative (reduce, reuse, recycle), and Africa’s potential to leapfrog to sustainable development patterns.
Carlos Manuel Rodríguez, Minister of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica, said that sustainable development cannot be achieved if individuals, nations, and the global community continue to use goods and services as they have for the last decade. He highlighted Costa Rica’s elaboration of a National Environment Strategy, and said a major challenge is the issue of land planning, and the implementation of land planning policies based on the wise and sustainable use of natural resources. He underscored the importance of cross-sectoral coordination and policy harmonization, and, stating that SCP was not yet fully integrated into political agendas of developing countries, he called for more international cooperation. He called for all relevant stakeholders to be involved in policy planning and implementation processes.
Viveka Bohn, Swedish Ministry of Sustainable Development, emphasized that SCP is a prerequisite for sustainable development and poverty eradication and said society should strive for more equality in consumption and production. She highlighted some of the issues to be addressed at this meeting, including use of task forces, improving international cooperation and assistance to developing countries, and providing input to the CSD. She highlighted the importance of the Marrakech Process in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and sustainable development. Participants then adopted the agenda.
REPORTS FROM REGIONAL MEETINGS
Representatives presented the outcomes from a series of regional meetings on SCP held during the 2003-2005 period.
AFRICA: Cleophas Migiro, Cleaner Production Centre, Tanzania, reported on the five regional meetings held since 2004 and their outcomes, including the African 10-Year Framework Programme and the Dakar Declaration. He said that Africa has the political will to implement SCP, and is ready to leapfrog to sustainable technologies, with the help of developed countries.
ASIA AND PACIFIC: Rae Kwon Chung, Director, Environment and Sustainable Development Division, UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), outlined challenges in Asia and the Pacific as income increases rapidly, society encourages conspicuous consumption, and environmental sustainability decreases. He said government should focus on providing sustainable choices through public policy and linking SCP with positive elements of traditional lifestyle and culture. He said recent meetings advocated eco-efficient “green growth” incorporating economic and social development, and announced that a Seoul initiative on green growth will be launched in November 2005 to promote SCP in Asia and the Pacific.
EUROPE: Marjo Nummelin, European Commission (EC), reported on the EC/UNEP European Stakeholder Meeting on SCP held 25-26 November 2004 in Belgium, which called for a strategic framework linked to other processes, involvement of the financial sector and producers, and for international financial institutions to promote SCP through national development strategies. Natacha Zuinen, Belgium, outlined recent EU initiatives including pilot and research programmes, public-private partnerships, and a proposal for an international panel on natural resources. She said SCP will be a key element of a revised EU sustainable development strategy to be adopted in Spring 2006.
Gunilla Blomquist, Chair, Nordic Ad hoc Group on SCP, reported on the Nordic Group’s emphasis on the importance of business and industry in promoting SCP and highlighted the Nordic Group’s report on North-South Business Relations and SCP in a North/South Perspective. She stressed the importance of SCP for sustainable development and of mobilizing support from the business sector. Highlighting the link between sustainable consumption and trade, she emphasized the need to include SCP in the CSD and WTO agendas. She stressed challenges in promoting SCP, including lack of coordination at the international level and lack of infrastructure for supporting sustainable production.
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: Diego Masera, Regional Office on Latin America and the Caribbean, UNEP, reported on Latin America and the Caribbean’s regional process, and reviewed the regional meetings. He emphasized work done by smaller countries such as Nicaragua, which face greater obstacles than some of the larger countries. Masera said political will existed, but that more resources were needed, and highlighted the importance of creating awareness, creating a council of government experts on SCP, cleaner production policies and South-South cooperation.
Ralph Chipman, Division for Sustainable Development, UN DESA, presented the Discussion Paper prepared by UN DESA and the UNEP/Wuppertal Institute Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production. Chipman emphasized that the Marrakech Process is a framework of programmes, rather than a single programme, and is intended to support regional and national initiatives. He said SCP should avoid trying to cover all of sustainable development. Chipman outlined the structure of the discussion paper and for the proposed working groups, noting that the working groups on industrial development and energy, climate and atmosphere would directly address issues to be discussed during the CSD 2006-2007 Implementation Cycle. Chipman said the expert discussions would influence the CSD process in three ways: through the official report; input to the CSD Secretariat’s preparations for CSD-14; and through government delegations. He said he expected a follow-up expert meeting to be held in 2007, in order to continue biennial meetings, and emphasized that regional processes have been very active. He said the five working groups at this meeting would address national experiences, success stories and lessons learned obstacles to promoting SCP and future work.
On Monday afternoon, a multi-stakeholder panel discussion on SCP was convened. Moderator David O’Connor, UN DESA, asked panelists to address how SCP fits into the missions, strategies, and operations of their organizations, and what they can contribute to and gain from this process.
Sherif Arif, Urban Planning and Waste Management, World Bank, discussed the costs of inaction in the Middle East and North African countries. He said that putting a monetary value on degradation would encourage decision makers to support policies with environmental priorities. He discussed problems related to air pollution, water pollution and land degradation. Using the fuel sector as an example, he said decreasing subsidies while improving sectoral policies would lead to economic benefits. He noted challenges including institutional and legal constraints, and involving the private sector in issues such as solid waste management.
Nadia Haiama-Neurohr, Chemicals Policy Adviser, Greenpeace, discussed the role of NGOs in promoting SCP. She used Greenpeace’s toxic chemicals campaign as an example of success in promoting SCP and influencing decision making in Europe, and emphasized a toxics-free future based on clean production, substitution and safer alternatives. Noting a lack of information about many chemicals, she highlighted a systematic approach to dealing with chemicals in the EU, entitled Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals. She said SCP opportunities included setting up clear objectives, priorities, targets, timelines and monitoring systems, and improving communication and information exchange. She called for better recognition of the role of NGOs in promoting SCP, which had not been included in the discussion paper.
Thomas Bergmark, Social and Environmental Affairs, IKEA Group, outlined IKEA’s longstanding commitment to sustainable production, particularly through self-imposed codes of conduct based on ILO and UN declarations. He stressed the challenges of enforcement and the need for partnerships with governments and other stakeholders.
Maria del Pilar López, ECOPLAN, outlined the work of YouthXchange in SCP education in Colombia. She stressed the significance of youth as a fast-growing consumer group that is heavily influenced by media promoting unsustainable mass consumption. Drawing on case studies, she recommended youth-designed strategies incorporating young people’s language and interests, and targeting both disadvantaged and wealthy youth. She called on national governments and agencies to support youth groups promoting SCP.
Participants then raised questions concerning the removal of fuel subsidies; enforcing voluntary standards on suppliers; self-esteem and youth gangs; the applicability of the Colombian strategy to Mesoamerica; and developing multi-stakeholder partnerships.
Bas de Leeuw, DTIE, UNEP, introduced the session on task forces, emphasizing that the task forces were strictly voluntary initiatives, and that any parties could get together on specific issues of interest. He said the task forces were meant to add value to work on the ground, and could address any topic within the scope of the Marrakech Process.
Gunilla Bronquist, Ministry of Sustainable Development, Sweden, announced the establishment of a Task Force on Sustainable Lifestyles, noting it would address, inter alia, consumption related to lifestyles and behavior, and the role of marketing and engagement in changing behaviors. She said work would be based on ongoing related activities and projects within UNEP, EU work on sustainable lifestyles, the Nordic cooperation on SCP linked to CSD themes, and related work and activities of the Council of Government Experts of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Chris Baker, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK, introduced the Task Force on Sustainable Products, noting that its first meeting would aim to begin improving international cooperation in raising product performance. He said the Task Force could, inter alia, raise awareness of product policy as a means of achieving international development and environmental objectives. He said an initial action plan could determine where policy on product performance is being developed, what existing benchmarks are being adopted, and the underlying rate of innovation.
Ulf Jaeckel, Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany, reported on the Task Force on Cooperation with Africa. He said the Task Force looked for ways to help African countries leapfrog, and stressed that partnerships should not only come from the environmental community.
Philip Kristensen, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, reported on the Task Force on Sustainable Public Procurement, and highlighted how governments can use their purchasing power to catalyze sustainable development. He reported on the preparation of a task force mandate to be presented to the next international meeting in 2007, and the elaboration of a sustainable public procurement toolkit.
SCP ACTIVITIES IN COSTA RICA
Sergio Musmanni, Director, National Cleaner Production Center, Costa Rica, outlined SCP activities in Costa Rica. These included: an environmental discharge fee to internalize water production costs; a UNEP/Wuppertal Institute “Efficient Entrepreneur Calendar” helping companies achieve SCP autonomously; sector-specific guides and an eco-design manual; plans to promote degradable plastics for niche applications; integrating cleaner production goals into a broader corporate social responsibility initiative; “Fempac,” a Costa Rican packaging scheme following Europe’s successful “Green Dot;” and an initiative establishing baselines for material imports to facilitate plans for their recycling, treatment and disposal. He said Costa Rica’s current electricity generation is relatively low impact, but that fossil fuel consumption was projected to increase, and that this should be averted through efficient public transport and car sharing, increased biomass power capacity and renewable fuels programmes. He outlined challenges including: finance and technology transfer; encouraging life cycle thinking; hazardous materials treatment and accounting; increasing waste collection efficiency; developing regulatory land use plans, ecolabels and awards; and increasing consumer awareness and engagement.
Experts participated in five working groups addressing specific areas for SCP. Working Group 1 focused on production processes and industrial development, Working Group 2 focused on urban planning and waste management, Working Group 3 focused on sustainable consumption and product development, Working Group 4 focused on national and regional strategies for SCP, and Working Group 5 focused on energy, climate and air pollution. The composition of each working group reflected a mix of expert preferences and geographical balance. The working groups met three times, on Tuesday morning and afternoon, and on Wednesday afternoon. In addition to their working group discussions, participants heard keynote presentations.
The results and recommendations of each working group were summarized by the Co-Chairs and the Secretariat in non-negotiated reports, which were presented in Plenary on Thursday, September 8. The deliberations of the working groups, the keynote presentations, and Plenary reactions to working group reports are summarized below.
Working Group 1: Production Processes and Industrial Development
This working group was co-chaired by Olivia la O’Castillo, Asia Pacific Roundtable for Sustainable Consumption and Production, the Philippines, and Edwin Piñero, Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, US.
Opening the meeting on Tuesday, Co-Chair O’Castillo said government policies should be clear and stable, and emphasized the importance of focusing on small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Co-Chair Edwin Piñero said governments should lead by example, noting the economic significance of public procurement. Key themes which emerged from the subsequent discussions included: capacity and awareness raising; making SCP relevant to quality of life and profit; alignment of regulations, policies and incentives; practical issues of finance, trade and regulatory barriers; SCP as a paradigm shift rather than a one-off action; organized, sustained dialogue and cooperation between all players; industry to industry discussion; and taking advantage of existing information, tools and networks.
Participants shared lessons from their experience reporting, inter alia, that: in a successful scheme in Argentina, large companies mentor SMEs in return for tax credits; Australia’s success with reducing CFCs through an industry-driven voluntary levy on HCFCs was adopted by Canada; in the US, the Energy Star Initiative, which encourages energy-efficient products through labeling, produced $10 billion in energy savings last year; Nicaragua has developed a series of seminars to show how SCP can increase private profit; Australia’s “extended producer responsibility” approach, managing product life cycle, has been adopted in other countries; NGOs in Kenya have developed an award to encourage corporate social responsibility; and in Austria and Germany, chemical suppliers and producers redefined their relationship so that profits now depend on eco-efficiency, avoiding the perverse incentives whereby raw material suppliers and waste material disposers increase profits by increasing waste.
On the role of government regulation of industry, some participants emphasized voluntary initiatives and “making government irrelevant”, while others felt that for rigid industries and irresponsible companies, regulation was key. Some participants advocated marketing SCP to business as profit-enhancing, rather than as environmentally-sound. Some developing country participants noted that developed countries change regulations suddenly, while other participants said the regulatory process was too slow. Participants highlighted the difficulties of enforcing regulation on SMEs and the informal sector, and problems associated with the potential for temporary improvements to cheat annual audits. One participant reported that in Nicaragua, banning domestic production of CFC-based cooling systems has been undermined by the ability to import them.
In the afternoon session, keynote speaker Maryna Möhr-Swart, Chamber of Mines of South Africa, outlined how South Africa’s mining industry is attempting to incorporate sustainable development practices. She gave examples of partnerships and voluntary codes of conduct adopted by the industry, and highlighted the mining industry’s leading role in environmental management accounting in South Africa, expressing hope that it may eventually contribute to the national resource accounts. In response, participants discussed the Latin American mining experience; energy costs of non-core mining activities; accountability for voluntary initiatives; and triple bottom line accounting.
On Wednesday, keynote speaker Takeshi Koga, Fujitsu Ltd., presented “Fujitsu’s Activities to Raise Environmental Values of Products”. He outlined life-cycle costing, which expresses social and financial costs within a single index and showed how it can reflect product improvements in a way consumers can easily understand. Koga highlighted the life-cycle assessment label Ecoleaf, which has been rapidly adopted by producers. He stressed that responsible businesses also paid attention to their suppliers’ environmental impact, and outlined Fujitsu’s processes for promoting SCP among suppliers. In the ensuing debate, participants discussed whether customers will pay more for eco-design, industry-government cooperation, the 3Rs initiative and “top runner” standards.
Closing the working group, participants discussed practical recommendations. Suggestions included: using chambers of commerce to reach companies; encouraging national cleaner production centers to focus on SMEs; including SCP in all levels of education, notably in business schools; calculating the costs of inaction; developing SCP indices; and integrating SCP into national accounts.
WORKING GROUP 2: URBAN PLANNING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
This working group was co-chaired by Cristina Cortinas de Navas, Environmental Consultant, Mexico, and Kazuyoshi Okazawa, Ministry of the Environment, Japan.
On Tuesday, 6 September, Co-Chair Cortinas opened the working group discussions with a presentation on waste management and its relation to other policies, using Mexico as an example. She outlined the recently enacted waste prevention and integral management law in Mexico, which, inter alia, addresses common but differentiated responsibilities, includes “Waste Management Plans”, and applies the “polluter pays” principle. Cortinas also highlighted the newly formed Mexican Network on the Environmentally Sound Management of Wastes, which involves local stakeholders, and said there were problems with importing old cars from developed countries.
Co-chair Kazuyoshi Okazawa, discussed “Promotion of the 3Rs Initiative and the Challenge in Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society.” He outlined the stages of the 3Rs and discussed: strengthening national policies to implement the 3Rs; reducing trade barriers; cooperation between developed and developing countries and stakeholders; and promotion of science and technology to foster the 3Rs. He highlighted Japan’s action plan for a global zero waste society.
During the ensuing discussion, participants addressed: the primary responsibility of municipalities in urban planning; persistent urban planning problems in developed countries; the importance of political will and changing institutional frameworks; problems related to politicians’ short term goals and the need for longer term community sustainability plans; and waste management as a source of economic development and job creation. One participant stressed the importance of laws, technology and economic incentives in managing waste, while another emphasized political will, leadership and ownership. Participants also addressed modifying national accounting, the problems of politicized waste management, the need to internalize environmental costs, databases of best practices for waste management, use of national cleaner production centers and Basel Conventions Regional Centers, and issues related to squatting. Some issues raised regarding national experiences included: the problem of rural bias related to resource allocation in the Philippines; difficulties in determining when carrying capacity has been reached in the Bahamas; waste prevention and use of biogas in the EU; problems associated with mixing wastes and lack of resources to separate waste in Macedonia; proliferation of licenses for mass transit in San Salvador; cleanup of waste by the private sector in Beirut; and problems related to burning waste in Cairo.
Keynote speaker Brian Williams, UN-Habitat, presenting on “Sustainable Consumption Patterns in Urban Transport in Developing Countries,” stressed the importance of transport for healthy cities. He said growth of motorization is exceeding population growth in developing countries, and that these countries face challenges of environmental degradation, negative health impacts, economic inefficiency and social inequality. He outlined planning measures, such as regeneration of decaying areas, advocated minimizing car use, identified regulatory measures such as staggered work hours and park-and-ride facilities, and highlighted use of economic instruments. He reviewed activities under the UN-Habitat programme on urban transport, such as designing prototype bicycle trailers to use for recycling in slums.
During the ensuing discussion, participants addressed linkages between land use and transport, difficulties in realizing behavioral changes, responsibilities of developed countries in regulation, use of compressed natural gas, replacing engines in old cars, hydrogen technology and a forthcoming hydrogen highway in Canada, and government responsibility for urban transport. The group also discussed perceptions and practicalities of bicycle use, some emphasizing that bicycles were one option but not the solution. One participant said the main message should be that private cars are not the future of urban transport, while another pointed to activities in developed countries to make vehicles cleaner. Participants identified some common obstacles to realizing sustainable cities in developing and developed countries, including lack of political will, lack of capacity and finances at the local level, and lack of sustainable urban planning.
On Wednesday, keynote speaker Miguel Araujo, Basel Convention Secretariat, made a presentation on the “Basel Convention and the Global Waste Challenge.” He reviewed goals and achievements of the Convention, including the Global Network of Basel Convention Regional Centers, and outlined the 2004 Ministerial statement on partnerships for meeting the global waste challenge, which determined there was an unprecedented growth in the generation of hazardous wastes, and that accumulation in urban settlements posed high risks particularly to the poor. He said the Global Environment Facility (GEF) recently began supporting Basel Convention-related work, and that strengthening Regional Centers would enable countries to access more financial resources and submit stronger proposals.
Participants then discussed recommendations to be forwarded from Working Group 2 to Plenary. They noted that much funding remains untapped, but that many activities lack funds, and thus the challenge is to close this gap. Recommendations included: sustainable funding for municipalities; integration of population factors into long term urban planning; setting up SCP centers in every country, which could be linked to existing networks such as national cleaner production centers, the World Urban Forum, Basel Regional Centers, UNEP and UN Habitat; innovative financing, such as using the clean development mechanism (CDM) funds available at the World Bank; a sustainable development trust fund; mechanisms that support entrepreneurs and increase funding possibilities, such as the SEED Initiative and the World Bank’s Development Marketplace, which reward innovative project proposals; better coordination between UN agencies addressing SCP and sustainable livelihoods; and preparation of a sustainable urban environmental programme by every capital city in every country. The issue of setting up a trust fund proved to be contentious.
Also addressed was the need to: integrate SCP policy in urban management from the beginning; develop a policy mix of regulatory and economic incentives; apply integrated solid waste management and the 3Rs approach; encourage efficient waste use in urban areas; and strengthen partnerships among stakeholders and enable public participation in the planning processes.
On Thursday in Plenary, Co-chair Kazuyoshi Okazawa reported on the group’s discussions and recommendations, reiterating the importance of long term urban planning; public transport, cleaner cars and non-motorized transport; collection, disposal and recycling of waste and problems related to the import of hazardous wastes; and water charges in developing countries. He said keys to success were: leadership, including appropriate policy and political will; partnerships with citizens and the business sector; and public awareness, including education, awareness raising and training. He said priorities for international cooperation focused on: information, such as awareness raising and best practices; assistance with, inter alia, policy formation and finances; and appropriate and more efficient technologies.
During the ensuing debate, one participant, in discussing communication tools, noted that many people do not have access to the internet and are illiterate and that innovative means of information sharing and communication need to be developed. Responding to a query on why small island developing States (SIDS) had been singled out in a recommendation referring to technology assistance, Co-Chair Cortinas explained that SIDS’ fragile ecosystems, lack of space for building landfills, and accumulation of waste from tourism distinguished them from other countries. One participant said sanitation had not been adequately addressed in the working group. Also raised were issues related to engaging youth and future decision makers, risk management, and difficulties in dividing different types of waste.
WORKING GROUP 3: SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
This working group was co-chaired by Paul Hofseth, Ministry of the Environment, Norway, and Kenneth Nkowani, Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources, Zambia.
Key themes discussed at Working Group 3 included: the need to address lifestyles, procurement and products; interaction between countries where product design is concentrated and those where production itself is concentrated; education; national action plans and dialogue with other groups; industrial and government procurement as a lever, including joint procurement; yardsticks and benchmarks to set and enforce standards; giving consumers sustainable choices; and considering future products as well as today’s products.
On Tuesday, considering priorities for action, participants reported on studies of consumer spending which consistently showed that food, household energy and transport account for most spending, and that focusing efforts on these could have profound environmental impacts. A participant emphasized the significance of SMEs. Some participants advocated product labeling to educate consumers, while one cautioned that misleading labels are rife, and that legislation and voluntary codes should complement labeling strategies. One participant said sustainable consumption should be the easy choice, highlighting opportunities in public transport. A participant described the problems of multiple product standards and regulations for industry and another recommended focusing on emerging industries to design internationally harmonized standards. Several emphasized the potential for leapfrogging. One participant explained the United States’ principle of regulating at the lowest possible level of government, and recommended that regulation be clear, transparent and enforceable.
Keynote speaker Lucy Shea, Director of Strategy, Futerra, introduced a UNEP/Futerra book of case studies and advice for communicating the SCP message. She stressed the importance of inspiring, personal and emotive stories and of making practical, innovative recommendations in tightly targeted communications.
On Wednesday afternoon, keynote speaker Eveline Venanzoni, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, outlined success factors for sustainable public procurement, including: a sustainable development strategy and high-level commitment; a centralized procurement organization similar to the Swiss case; a conducive legal framework; cooperation between partners; awareness-raising for all stakeholders involved in public procurement; handbooks, practical tools, and economical product criteria; training of purchasers; and international collaboration and information-sharing. Drawing on case studies, she concluded that sustainable public procurement was already possible and that minimum sustainability criteria should be met by all suppliers as entry preconditions to the global market. Venanzoni said the Marrakech Sustainable Public Procurement Task Force should work on these issues, giving practical examples of how this might work.
During breakout groups, participants discussed priorities for action. On institutional procurement, recommendations included: sharing information and experiences, perhaps through websites; shared national or international procurement to increase purchasing power; training institutional purchasers; a product database; and sharing information with private sector purchasers. On sustainable culture and lifestyles, recommendations included building national action plans, NGO pressure for implementation, and best practice sharing. On product design, participants recommended developing a shared vision and progress indicators, and focusing on education and raising awareness.
At Thursday’s Plenary, Co-Chair Hofseth reported on the outcomes of the working group’s deliberations. During the ensuing discussion, participants suggested including reference to: levels of consumption in general; strengthening regional consumption and production of goods with short life cycles and high relative transport costs, such as food; gender equity and related consumption patterns; communication and the challenge of illiteracy; action research to help tackle sustainable lifestyles; special needs of SIDS; “challenging” rather than “changing” minds; increasing transparency and global standards; and access to sustainable raw materials.
WORKING GROUP 4: REGIONAL AND NATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR SCP
This working group was co-chaired by Terence Ilott, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs UK, and Philip Acquah, Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana.
On Tuesday, the group heard keynote presentations on national SCP strategies from Kari Raivio, Chancellor, University of Helsinki, Finland, and Victoria Belaustegui, Ministry for the Environment and Sustainable Development, Argentina. Common themes emerging from those national experiences included: environmental, economic, and social costs of inaction; the need to tailor strategies to specific countries or regions; involving stakeholders in the strategy formulation process; the competitive advantage obtained from eco-efficiency; voluntary agreements with the private sector; and enabling consumers to make sustainable choices.
Participants then discussed national SCP strategies, identifying common challenges in both developed and developing countries. Some participants stressed the importance of integrating SCP into national sustainable development strategies as an overall national objective, and of developing concrete sectoral action plans that promote SCP, with targets and indicators. Lack of public understanding of SCP was identified as a challenge. Participants agreed that for some developing countries SCP is still a new issue and not a priority, and that integrating SCP into poverty reduction strategies would be a better approach. Participants acknowledged that countries and regions have different priorities and require different strategies, but identified some common priorities for action, including energy, technology, poverty reduction, public procurement and government leading by example, education and awareness-raising, changing behavior, and overcoming trade barriers and distortions. Examples from Switzerland and Norway included setting climate change as a national environmental priority and exploring policies to promote sustainable use of energy, in order to achieve Kyoto Protocol targets.
Also discussed were issues related to: early involvement of stakeholders so as to utilize their expertise; the need for clear, coherent targets on SCP and sound, science-based decision making; integrating progress monitoring into the strategy formulation process; and establishing a small set of globally accepted indicators that reflect the ecological, social and economic dimension of SCP and are easily communicated.
On Wednesday, the working group met in breakout groups to discuss: guidelines for SCP strategy formulation; SCP linkages to poverty reduction strategies, especially the MDGs; indicators and monitoring; bringing together policy makers and academics; involving the private sector, NGOs and local government more effectively; further work on the costs of inaction; and sustainable procurement. On links with poverty reduction, issues addressed included more cooperation between the SCP agenda and poverty reduction, especially the MDGs, and mainstreaming SCP into poverty reduction strategies. The group advocated developing a small set of key indicators at the international level that could be adapted for national-level use.
In their report to Plenary, Co-Chairs Ilott and Acquah said SCP strategies could either be separate from or integrated into existing sustainable development strategies. They also highlighted priority areas for action and the criteria to identify them, the need to involve stakeholders in the SCP strategy development process and intergovernmental coordination, and monitoring and indicators. They said the group further urged communicating SCP in a language people will understand, bottom-up strategy development, and engaging the private sector so that they come to view SCP as a benefit. Key recommendations included developing guidelines to assist governments in developing national SCP strategies, continuing cooperation between work on SCP and development agencies and calling on UNEP and DESA to facilitate this, focusing on the costs of inaction, and working on sustainable procurement,
During the ensuing discussion, participants suggested using the experiences from the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Programme to help determine costs of inaction, and including consumer organizations when listing stakeholders. They also highlighted the need for differentiated strategies at national, community and municipal levels.
Working Group 5: Energy, Climate and Air Pollution
This working group was co-chaired by Elfriede-Anna More, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Austria, and David Barrett, Energy and Environment, Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica.
On Tuesday morning, experts drew on their experiences to discuss, inter alia: whether private sector involvement is more about financial obstacles and profits than awareness; renovation of residential buildings; energy efficiency incentive measures; combined heat and power; renewable energy incentive schemes; modern biomass use, its links to air pollution and its potential in Africa; country size availability and competing land uses for renewable energy sources; energy labels and whether they have a greater effect on supply or demand; efficiency standards and their enforcement; consumer awareness of energy efficiency; increased consumption offsetting efficiency gains; energy taxation; eco-design; whether to focus on individual or collective behavior; technology transfer; capacity building; information overload and access to relevant information appropriate to every case; monitoring air pollution; the need for fiscal, regulatory and market based incentives; pollution permits; integration of costs of inaction into the SCP decision-making process; and funding.
In his keynote speech, David Barrett elaborated on Jamaica’s energy system and its options for sustainable practices. He said in order to bring about a transition from conventional to sustainable production practices there must be an internal catalyst and dedicated funding, as well as local involvement and interest. Barrett stressed that sustainability is long term and thinking should not be limited by current technology.
In the afternoon, keynote speakers Fernando Alvarado and Carlos Roldán, Ministry of Environment and Energy, Costa Rica, described their country’s energy situation. They related experiences with, inter alia, energy labeling for appliances, vehicle standards, ethanol use, private sector involvement in power generation, biomass use, and a project to use excess hydropower to generate hydrogen and oxygen. They also described problems, such as lack of enforcing capabilities and a public sector with decreasing funding and increasing responsibilities.
Experts then considered obstacles such as public policy development and enforcement capabilities, high costs, access to technology, awareness of economic benefits of energy efficiency, information and skills, and political resistance. They also discussed, among other things, cost hurdles created by policy settings; biomass and bio-fuels, including the distinction between the sustainability of biomass residues and energy crops, and ethanol and bio-diesel standards; investment; peer technology transfer; energy subsidies; negotiated and voluntary industry codes of conduct; environmental requirements in supply chains; integration of environmental and transport policies; access to credit; environmental education and awareness; and the building sector.
On Wednesday, keynote speaker Edgar Ortiz, National Forest Financing Fund, Costa Rica, discussed mainstreaming payments for environmental services in Costa Rica, with particular emphasis on accessing carbon markets. He explained that there are two market segments for carbon emission reductions: the Kyoto and the non-Kyoto segments. He said each obeys different rules and pays different prices. He described the CDM from the supply side perspective, explaining that “Kyoto lands” are those not forested before 1989, and thus eligible for afforestation credits under the Kyoto mechanisms. The ensuing discussion focused on the CDM and carbon markets.
Experts were then asked to identify priorities at the national and international levels for improving energy efficiency, reducing air pollution, and cooperation. At the national level, experts identified their countries’ priorities, including: energy efficiency awareness; public procurement and contracting schemes; sustainable transport strategies, including rural transport; demonstration of renewable energies from a life-cycle perspective; capacity building; pollution monitoring systems; access to technology; and identifying new energy technologies and barriers to those technologies.
At the international level, experts identified priorities, including: prioritizing partnerships that have proved effective, such as the Global Forum for Sustainable Energy; working on knowledge management tools in the field of sustainable energy; climate change, which experts said the Marrakech Process should only tackle if there was added value in the SCP context; importing old, inefficient appliances from developed countries to developing countries, links to the Basel Convention and the relationship between hazardous appliances and energy efficiency; prioritizing sustainability over bulk power generation in international financing for energy projects; disseminating information on national capacities; and facilitating procedures for access to finance. One expert explained the Australian approach to energy efficiency in large industry users, with a policy mandating the top 200 consumers to undergo an energy efficiency opportunities assessment and release the results. Another expert expressed the need for facilitators to assist knowledge exchange and technology transfer. It was noted that for SIDS, aggregation of projects was sometimes necessary to reach the minimum size required for international donor funding. One participant elaborated on the Sustainable Products Task Force, and experts agreed that it would enhance international cooperation on energy appliance efficiency, as long as it complements existing work in the field.
In the debate, following the working group’s presentation in Plenary, the Co-Chairs explained that transportation issues were approached from the perspective of fuel use and air pollution, in order to avoid overlap with Working Group 2. One expert questioned the role of subsidies, pointing out that subsidies themselves are one of the biggest barriers for SCP implementation and another pointed out that low energy prices can undermine efforts to change producer and consumer behavior. It was suggested that countries should carry out an energy use and environmental impact review of all their policies. The Co-Chairs explained that sustainable procurement should apply to international organizations. Experts also underscored the need to create markets for environmental services and to focus on lifestyles when considering energy issues.
COOPERATION DIALOGUE SESSIONS
Cooperation dialogue sessions were held on Monday afternoon, September 5, and on Tuesday afternoon, September 6. A panel discussion on the cooperation dialogue sessions was held on Wednesday afternoon, September 7. The dialogue sessions consisted of short presentations by donor agency representatives, followed by a question and answer session with participants. The small group setting aimed to facilitate information exchange and the establishment of partnerships among experts and representatives from international donor organizations. After hearing presentations elaborating their various cooperation projects and initiatives, participants engaged in dialogue with representatives from donor agencies.
Each agency representative made his/her presentation four times to different groups of delegates. A World Bank representative explained the procedure for obtaining loans, including loans to the private sector, and the way projects are reviewed. During the discussion, participants raised issues related to the length of time it takes to obtain a loan, the Bank’s incorporation of sustainable development into its work, long-term community sustainability plans, the question of whether the Bank conducts long-term evaluation of projects, and the World Bank’s role in regional initiatives. Representatives from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) said JICA focused on bilateral grants, bilateral loans, and investment/contributions to international organizations. They emphasized solid waste management, energy efficiency, renewable energy, capacity development, and the 3Rs. JICA said that any developing country could apply for assistance.
A representative from Finland outlined her government’s long-term, selective and recipient-driven approach to development. A representative from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) said his government prioritizes the recipients’ national agendas when giving aid, and therefore, if SCP projects are to be supported, recipient country governments should be encouraged to include SCP in their national agendas. Participants then discussed lack of flexibility due to supporting only national plans, regional versus national programme support, the role of the private sector, reducing industrial pollution in West Africa, and development agencies’ contribution to the MDGs. One participant stressed the importance of achieving the right mix of integrated approaches such as SCP, sectoral expertise and concrete actions.
UN DESA explained that it implements projects but is not a donor agency. She outlined several projects, including promotion of energy efficiency standards and labeling in developing countries, solar water heating, and building capacity for renewable energy entrepreneurs. The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI) highlighted goals, principles, and priorities, and explained how AECI cooperates with recipient governments.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) noted its work in five priority areas: good governance, health, basic education, private-sector development, environmental sustainability and gender equality. One participant from the Caribbean lamented the lack of funding allocated to her region, while another asked for clarification on criteria for choosing recipient countries.
PANEL DISCUSSION IN PLENARY: Moderator James Riordan, Canada, reported on the outcomes of the cooperation dialogue sessions and said all agreed that poverty eradication was the starting point. He reported that the sessions covered: reference to the MDGs; emphasis by development agencies on priorities set by governments in their national development plans; ownership of development initiatives by governments; harmonization of work between development agencies; developing South-South cooperation; supporting regional projects; and preparing and implementing CDM projects.
Sherif Arif, World Bank, stated that the World Bank would finance projects in sectors leading to SCP, but not SCP projects themselves, and highlighted the role of incentives, institutions, investment and information in eligible projects. He said approximately $500 million was available from the Bank for CDM projects and invited countries to submit proposals. He also noted that the long-term impact of free trade on SCP will have to be addressed.
Yamada Taizo, JICA, Japan, stressed that aid agencies need to know how they can be useful to the Marrakech Process. He said more support was needed, and that the JICA application process can be very cumbersome. Taizo welcomed the opportunity to discuss issues at a technical level.
Kathleen Abdullah, UN DESA, stressed that UN DESA is not a typical donor agency. She underscored the need to see how innovative ideas from one project fit into another SCP project, and to make sure that available funds get used in SCP projects. She stressed the importance of the private sector and the need to work more closely with WSSD partnerships.
In addition to the Plenary sessions, working groups, cooperation dialogue sessions, and field trips, participants had the opportunity to participate in training workshops during the evenings. There were five training workshops, which addressed: sustainable public procurement; UN Consumer Guidelines; environmental management accounting; waste management; and life-cycle approaches for SCP. Training workshops were held on Monday 5 September, Tuesday 6 September, and Thursday 8 September.
SUMMARY BY THE CO-CHAIRS
In the afternoon, Co-Chairs Bohn and Flores presented their Draft Summary of the meeting, which is to be forwarded to CSD-14 for its consideration.
The Summary calls for a third international expert meeting to be held in 2007 as part of the Marrakech Process, to work within and feed into the CSD work programme. It encourages the work of the four task forces announced during the meeting (Sustainable Lifestyles, Sustainable Products, Cooperation with Africa, and Sustainable Procurement) and invites these, and other task forces which might emerge, to report to the next meeting and to relevant CSD sessions. It suggests that the next meeting should include reports from future regional meetings on practical implementation activities at the regional level. The Summary welcomes the Marrakech Process website and requests that UN DESA add a database on international activities on consumption and production patterns. It calls for continuing dialogue with development agencies, including further cooperation roundtables at the next meeting, and for UNEP and UN DESA to lead a review of how SCP can be better integrated into development agency projects, with results presented to the next meeting.
The Summary concludes that SCP work should be linked to poverty reduction, especially the MDGs, and integrated into national strategies for sustainable development and poverty reduction. It calls for further work on estimating the costs of inaction and the benefits of SCP; awareness-raising; and ongoing international cooperation including capacity building, technical and financial assistance and knowledge sharing.
In the ensuing debate, participants suggested that the Summary should also reflect the importance of: civil society organizations’ potential contribution to SCP, and the need to strengthen them; research on SCP in developing countries; information and communications technology and education; national action plans; working with and through the market; local implementation, including working towards sustainable cities; linking SCP to health; changing attitudes and behavior, rather than just raising awareness; and the economic and environmental impacts of micro-enterprises and SMEs.
DISCUSSION OF FUTURE WORK AND CLOSING REMARKS
Reviewing highlights of the meeting, Bas de Leeuw, DTIE, UNEP, noted: inclusion of new stakeholders in the process; emphasis on links between SCP and poverty eradication and the MDGs; the new cooperation dialogue involving the development cooperation community; and progress on the task forces. He said it was time to move into the implementation phase, and said future meetings should build on and not merely replicate what had taken place at previous meetings. He said UNEP’s Bali Strategic Plan could boost SCP through capacity building and training, stressed that SCP is now something that developing countries are also interested in, and said requests for support could be sent to UNEP. He said the seeds for a new type of Marrakech process had been sown.
David O’Connor, UN DESA, discussed ways in which DESA would continue to support the Marrakech Process, including through policy and other analyses, maintaining and improving the Marrakech Process website, updating and building on the database of international support activities, and extending it to include regional activities. He said the cooperation dialogue had opened a window into mainstream cooperation work and its intersection with SCP, and emphasized that the task forces required commitment and the opportunity to establish networks and forge partnerships. He said the SCP process would feed directly into the CSD, including through the Secretary-General’s report. He commended Costa Rica’s innovations in environmental and sustainable development policies.
Reiterating some of the meeting’s highlights, Co-Chair Viveka Bohn emphasized links to poverty reduction and the MDGs, strengthening dialogue and cooperation with development agencies, integrating SCP strategies into sustainable development or poverty reduction strategies, awareness of costs of inaction and interest in task forces. She hoped strategies would be put into action, and said this meeting would constitute a valuable contribution to CSD-14. She emphasized a bottom-up approach to inspire lifestyle changes, and on behalf of Sweden, offered to host the next meeting in 2007.
In his closing remarks, Co-Chair Allan Flores underscored how the meeting provided the opportunity to exchange experiences, best practices, and information on current SCP activities. He stressed the need for more financial support for SCP projects, and noted how successful the field trips were in showcasing Costa Rica’s SCP projects and opportunities. The meeting was adjourned at 4.22pm.
FIRST ARAB EXPERT MEETING ON SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: 15-16 September 2005, Beirut, Lebanon. This meeting is being organized by UN DESA and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). For more information contact: Issa Toubbeh; tel: +961-1-978117; fax: +961-1-981501; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetings.asp
FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NATIONAL FOCAL POINTS IN THE REGIONAL PROMOTIONAL MECHANISMS FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS: 20-21 September 2005, Beirut, Lebanon. This meeting is organized by UN ESCWA. For more information contact: Issa Toubbeh; tel: +961-1-978117; fax: +961-1-981501; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.escwa.org.lb/information/meetings.asp
18TH WORLD PETROLEUM CONGRESS: 25-29 September 2005, Johannesburg, South Africa. This meeting will address the theme, “Shaping the Energy Future: Partners in Sustainable Solutions.” For more information contact: Daryl Howes; tel: +27-11-302-4600; fax: +27-11-302-4601; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.18wpc.com/
3RD WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CONGRESS: 2-6 October 2005, Torino, Italy. This congress, which will be taking place in the inaugural year of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, is slated to pave the way for a series of biennial congresses to follow. For more information contact: The Secretary’s Office, Istituto per l’Ambiente e l’Educazione Scholé Futuro; tel: +39-11-436-6522; fax: +39-11-436-6522; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.3weec.org/
PARLIAMENTARIAN FORUM ON ENERGY LEGISLATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: 5-7 October 2005, Cape Town, South Africa. This meeting is organized by UN DESA in preparation for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN Division for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-2803; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/calendar/oct2005.htm
INTERNATIONAL PLATFORM ON SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT: 11-13 October 2005, Geneva, Switzerland. The objective of this multi-stakeholder platform is to present innovative solutions in the fields of technologies, governance, civil society and enterprises from urban areas, with an emphasis on creating partnerships: public/private; north/south; local/global. For more information contact: Otto Frei AG; tel: +41-31-311-35-66; fax: +41-31-311-35-67; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.s-dev.org
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: 18-19 October 2005, New Delhi, India. This workshop is organized by UN DESA and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India. For more information contact: Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/calendar/oct2005.htm
AFRICA REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: 24-28 October 2005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This meeting, which is organized by the UN Economic Commission for Africa, will develop input from the Africa region for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN ECA; tel: +251-1-51-72-00; fax: +251-1-51-44-16; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.uneca.org/
LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: 18-19 January 2006, Santiago, Chile. This meeting is organized by UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and will develop input from the Latin America and Caribbean region for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN ECLAC; tel: +56-2-210-2000; fax: +56-2-208-0252; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.eclac.org/
SECOND INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: 28-1 November 2005, Beijing, China. This meeting is co-sponsored by the UNESCO Beijing Office and the Chinese Government. It will provide an opportunity to share, consult and, help form the Chinese Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Plan. For more information contact: Christiana Lawson, Forum Secretariat, Beijing, China; tel: +86-10-6606-7158; fax: +86-10-6606-7158; Internet: http://www.bj-aes.org/forum2005/
ENERGY SUMMIT IN AFRICA: 7-9 November 2005, Dakar, Senegal. The issues to be addressed by this conference include energy needs and resources, infrastructure, investment, deregulation, the opening up of markets, and new regulations. The Summit will support the New Partnership for Africaï¿½s Development. For more information contact: Jean-Pierre Favennec; tel: +33-1-4752-7116; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.gvep.org/content/calendar/detail/9326
BEIJING INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CONFERENCE 2005: 7-8 November 2005, Beijing, China. This meeting is being organized by the Governments of China and Germany in cooperation with the UN DESA. Following up on the Renewables 2004, the conference will address issues such as the development and transfer of renewable energy technologies. For more information contact: Internet: http://www.birec2005.cn
WEST ASIA REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: 11-13 November 2005, Cairo, Egypt. This meeting is organized by UN ESCWA and will develop input from the West Asia region for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN ESCWA; tel: +961-1-981-301; fax: +961-1-981-510; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.escwa.org.lb/
WORLD RENEWABLE ENERGY ASSEMBLY: 26-30 November 2005, Bonn, Germany. This event, which is organized by the World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE), will include the Third World Renewable Energy Policy Forum and Second International Parliamentary Forum. For more information contact: WCRE; tel: +49-228-36-23-73; fax: +49-228-36-12-13; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.wcre.org
EUROPE REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: 15-16 December 2005, Geneva, Switzerland. This meeting is organized by the UN Economic Commission for Europe and will develop input from the European region for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN ECE; tel: +41-0-22-917-1234; fax: +41-0-22-917-0505; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.unece.org/Welcome.html
ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: 19-20 January 2006, Bangkok, Thailand. This meeting is organized by UN ESCAP and will develop input from the Asia and Pacific region for CSD-14. For more information contact: UN ESCAP; tel: +66-2-288-1234; fax: +66-2-288-1000; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/calendar/jan2006.htm
DELHI SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUMMIT 2006: 2-4 February 2006, New Delhi, India. Organized by TERI, this meeting will address the theme, ï¿½Linking across MDGs: Towards innovative partnerships and governance.ï¿½ For more information contact: Summit Secretariat; tel: +91-11-2468-2100; fax: +91-11-2468-2144; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.teriin.org/dsds/2006/index.htm
FOURTEENTH SESSION OF THE UN COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, CSD-14: 1-12 May 2006, New York, USA. CSD-14 will begin the second implementation cycle of the Commissionï¿½s new work programme and will review progress on atmosphere/air pollution, climate change, energy and industrial development. For more information contact: UN DSD; tel: +1-212-963-2803; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/index.html