Events convened on Tuesday, 24 July 2001
UNFCCC Article 6: Priorities, cooperation and sharing
Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat
At this event, members of the UNFCCC Secretariat outlined findings from country submissions, side events and the Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) on Article 6 (education, training and public awareness) of the UNFCCC.
Moussa Diakhité explained that a document on Article 6 is being prepared for SBSTA, which will include proposals and options for integrating Article 6 into SBSTA's work programme. He recalled the guidance from SBSTA-12, that lessons learned from work already undertaken by Parties and other stakeholders should be compiled and priorities identified.
Lisa Moreau highlighted suggestions from the five submissions made to the Secretariat on this matter (from Austria, Uzbekistan, Switzerland, Kenya and the US). They recommended, inter alia: refining reporting guidelines to increase information comparability; organizing regular international workshops on education issues, training of national specialists and exchange of best practices; providing accessible, easy to understand and translated versions of UNFCCC materials; providing training to national focal points to establish outreach programmes; and using the Internet to share information and educational materials.
Kevin Grose outlined findings from side events held at SB-12, SB-13 and COP-6, which found that integrating communications planning and policy development increases public awareness, enhances the public's sense of ownership and heightens support for government policy. The events also revealed that: sharing experiences enables Parties to learn from each other; access to computers and the Internet is a powerful tool for information exchange and dissemination; experiences and information products should be made accessible through clearinghouses, web sites and resources centers; and involving all sectors of society has multiplier effects.
Graham Sem discussed the CGE's findings from national communications of non-Annex I Parties. The communications revealed that education on climate change is an important part of national development and environment plans in most non-Annex I countries. These countries reported that they are incorporating environmental and climate change issues into formal education systems, and are developing materials to support teaching and learning in educational institutions. The communications also revealed a lack of sufficiently trained scientific and technical personnel and a need for public awareness materials.
Moreau explained that, based on the findings from country submissions, side events and the CGE, the Secretariat formulated a preliminary categorization of needs related to Article 6. These included: increasing information sharing among national focal points and others; facilitating public awareness activities; heightening public participation; developing web sies; integrating climate change into education curricula; and providing training in communications and public information. She noted that public awareness was identified as the area requiring greatest prioritization.
Kevin Grose concluded by noting that a possible work programme for SBSTA on Article 6 would include priorities, sharing and cooperation on matters related to education, training and public awareness.
Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event
Greenhouse gases in economies in transition
Presented by UNCTAD
Gao Pronove, Govida Corporation, stated that some EITs are eager to begin implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and highlighted the workshop as an excellent opportunity to bring together buyers and sellers from the public and private sectors to develop a common programme of action to promote the emerging GHG emissions market in EITs.
Participants discussed aspects of the workshop, including goals, agenda, activities, participants, dates, and venue. Proposals for workshop topics included: early crediting for joint implementation projects; further emissions reductions through energy efficiency; drivers for a cap and trade system; standardization and linkages between domestic systems; reduction of transaction costs; and the needs of investors and lenders.
John O'Brien, Enviros, described capacity building needs in EITs related to emissions trading, and possible opportunities for support from the UK Government. He noted that EITs should examine the best mix of policy options for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and suggested that EITs could benefit from the UK experience in designing and implementing a domestic emissions trading system. He concluded that the UK could assist EITs with capacity building for policy analysis and preparing training modules on design and implementation issues.
SouthSouthNorth: Clean Development Mechanism pilot projects
Presented by Pelangi
SSN, said that SSN's mission is to promote cooperation between
Southern countries, and between countries in the South and the
North. He maintained that the principle aims of SSN are to learn
by doing, host governments with CDM structures, build capacity,
and promote Internet resources. He noted that eight pilot projects
have resulted in the design of a useful set of criteria and
indicators (C&I) for CDM projects.
SSN, elaborated on the C&I rating methodology for project
eligibility, feasibility and sustainability. The eligibility
criteria include energy project activities qualifying for the
CDM, real and measurable benefits, and contributions to sustainable
development. Sustainable development indicators, he said, incorporate
global climate mitigation and local environmental, financial
and technological sustainability. Presenting project results
from South Africa and Brazil, he emphasized the importance of
the "learning-by-doing" approach.
Mozaharul Alam, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, presented an overview of the Bangladesh CDM pilot projects, which include solar home systems in remote rural areas and electric vehicles in Dhaka. He noted that important co-benefits of the projects include: education; recreation and awareness building; local employment generation; replication of projects; reduction of the burdens of fossil fuel imports; and improvement of rural livelihoods.
Pelangi, described Indonesia's pilot project experience of establishing
new and efficient engines for public transportation in Yogyakarta.
The project aims to restructure urban public transport management,
improve the efficiency of the urban bus system, and provide
cleaner engines for two-fifths of existing buses.
Novi Ganefianto, UNOCAL, introduced the Sarulla geothermal energy project in Sumatra. He cited investment costs of US$2.4-$11.4 per ton of CO2 emissions, and noted barriers to project success, such as existing prices per kilowatt-hour of geothermal energy and the limited ability of project partners to secure financing. He noted that projects have considerable sustainability benefits, such as improving land use and water quality and reducing local particulate pollution. Future challenges include refining CDM project documentation, determining appropriate project size, validating the project concept, seeking approval of the central government, and structuring financial arrangements for new investors.
Discussion: Participants noted that institutional barriers are a major concern for CDM project design and implementation, and that SSN projects have overcome these barriers by using a participatory approach to project development.
Standardized verification of small-scale CDM/JI projects: Lessons learned from Swedish AIJ projects
Presented by the Swedish delegation in collaboration with the Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM)
Salay, Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM), shared
his experiences and lessons learned from AIJ projects, and
highlighted a new Swedish programme for project-based mechanisms.
To date, Sweden has implemented 60 AIJ projects in the Baltic
States and northwestern Russia, of which two-thirds are boiler
conversions to bio-fuel and energy efficiency projects. Lessons
learned from these projects include the need to: adapt CDM
and JI projects to local priorities; promote close cooperation
between national and local organizations; engage local experts
in establishing baselines, monitoring and reporting; and provide
information in local languages. He stressed the importance
of a "learning-by-doing" approach, and added that
projects have illustrated differences between host countries,
the need for feedback activities and the importance of capacity
building. He noted that long-term commitment to future projects
is crucial, and that common guidelines for project implementation
On the new Swedish programme for project-based mechanisms, Salay described an International Climate Investment Programme fund of US$28 million that will contribute to the preparation of JI and CDM projects between 1998 and 2004. He noted other activities, including the Prototype Carbon Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Energy Cooperation programme.
Michael Lehmann, Det Norske Veritas (DNV), presented a report entitled "Multi-project Verification of Swedish AIJ Projects: Verification Results and Documentation." The report describes DNV's experience with the verification of Swedish AIJ projects. DNV, a leading independent GHG verifier, used a multi-project verification methodology to evaluate a selection of Swedish boiler conversion and fuel-switching projects in the Baltic region. He explained that the verification process involves several important phases, such as screening, site selection, on-site verification, extrapolation of audit results, discounting for uncertainties, and sensitivity analysis. He noted that trade-offs between costs, scale and certainty determine the number of on-site audits and the accuracy of monitoring arrangements.
Uzzell, DNV, discussed the "burden" of monitoring
and reporting, and suggested that synergies exist between
these tasks. Concluding, he emphasized that: multi-project
verification is a good alternative for small-projects; project
implementers need not wait for sector benchmarks or baselines
to commence initiatives; transaction costs for verification
can be substantially reduced; and DNV verified 498,710 tonnes
of CO2 reductions between 1993 and
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