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D&C Days and Adaptation Practitioners Days Bulletin
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Volume 99 Number 9 - Wednesday, 5 December 2012
SUMMARY OF THE “DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS” AND “ADAPTATION PRACTITIONERS DAYS”
1-2 DECEMBER 2012

Two events addressing climate change adaptation and development took place simultaneously at the Ezdan Hotel and Suites in Doha, Qatar, on 1-2 December 2012, in parallel with the eighteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and eighth Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

Development and Climate Days (D&C Days), which has been organized at UNFCCC COPs since 2002, celebrated its tenth anniversary at Doha. It was organized in a new partnership between the Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre (Climate Centre), the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), and focused on “innovative approaches, and incisive dialogue on climate-smart development.” The event featured a new format of “experiential learning” where inventive games were used to help participants experience real life dilemmas.

Adaptation Practitioners Days (APD), meanwhile, is a new event that aims to bring together pioneers of adaptation to share experiences of climate-resilient development in action, and address the question “what is adaptation in practice?” It featured a number of presentations on experiences on the ground gained from more than 10 years of creative adaptation financing through the two adaptation-related funds established under the UNFCCC: the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) facilitated APD in collaboration with the UNFCCC Secretariat, with the sponsorship of the governments of Germany, the Gambia and Tuvalu.

The two events shared the same venue, with D&C events taking place on the morning of Saturday, 1 December and the afternoon of Sunday, 2 December, while APD events took place on Saturday afternoon and Sunday morning. A number of side-events also took place. More than 200 participants attended over the two days.

This report summarizes the presentations and discussions held during the main sessions of the two events.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND DEVELOPMENT

In the early years of the global climate negotiations, climate change was viewed largely as an environmental concern with little relevance to development policy makers or practitioners. Climate change experts traditionally focused on mitigation and associated technological and natural science issues, rather than development approaches. While UNFCCC COP 1 in 1995 addressed funding for adaptation, it was not until the adoption of the Marrakesh Accords in 2001 that adaptation began to be more widely seen as a prominent area for action.

Today, climate change is more widely recognized as one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity, natural resources and physical infrastructure. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the effects of climate change have already been observed, and precautionary and prompt action is therefore necessary. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report, published in 2007, indicates that hundreds of millions of people will be exposed to increased water stress, many millions more will be exposed to flooding every year, and access to food in numerous African countries will be severely compromised.

The IPCC has also underscored that developing countries are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change because they lack adaptive capacity, highlighting the link between adaptation and development-focused action. Adaptation to the effects of climate change is now acknowledged as necessary for responding not just effectively, but also equitably, to the impacts of climate change and climate variability.

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS

D&C Days began as “Adaptation Day” in 2002 to discuss some of these issues. A “Development Day” was added in 2004 to bring in development practitioners who, until then, did not attend climate change negotiations, but whose active engagement was necessary in addressing the impacts of climate change on development. In 2007, the event was renamed “Development and Climate Days” to reflect that adaptation is now fairly well mainstreamed into the development agenda and that good adaptation presupposes development.

ADAPTATION DAY AT COP 8: The first Adaptation Day in New Delhi, India, in 2002, included sessions on science, funding, policy and actions.

ADAPTATION DAY AT COP 9: Adaptation Day in 2003 took place in Milan, Italy, and included sessions on: the science of adaptation; funding adaptation; adaptation in action; and the politics and negotiations of adaptation.

DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 10: In Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 2004, Development Day focused on; climate change and development; food security and disaster planning; and water and health. Adaptation Day included discussions on: the science of adaptation; funding adaptation; and adaptation in action. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 10: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop10/dad/

DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 11: Development Day in Montreal, Canada, in 2005, focused on: linkages between climate change and development; health; and disaster management. Adaptation Day included sessions on: the science of adaptation; community-based adaptation; and experience with national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 11: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop11/dad/

DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DAYS AT COP 12: In 2006, in Nairobi, Kenya, Development Day focused on: energy and sustainable development; agriculture and food security; and water. Adaptation Day included sessions on: science, tools and adaptation; community-based adaptation; and experience with least developed countries’ (LDCs) NAPAs. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 12: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop12/dad/

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 13: The 2007 event in Bali, Indonesia, included panels on: disaster reduction and extreme weather events; cities; health; financing adaptation; food and agriculture; community-based adaptation; and communicating for communities across sectors and timescales. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 13: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop13/dcd/

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 14: The 2008 event in Poznań, Poland, included discussions on: vulnerable groups; gender and climate change; children; the Arctic and Small Island Developing States (SIDS); rights and justice; policymaking in a changing climate; community-based adaptation; adaptation effectiveness; and adaptation funding. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 14: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/ cop14/dcd/

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 15: The 2009 event in Copenhagen, Denmark, focused on: land, water and forests; justice, ethics and humanitarian issues; planning adaptation; and mitigation, finance and the private sector. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 15: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop15/dcd/

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 16: In 2010, in Cancún, Mexico, Development and Climate Days focused on: low-carbon, resilient development; adaptation, including community-based institutions, planning, assessment and financing; climate change communications; the Fairtrade movement and climate change; and climate change and migration. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 16: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop16/dcd/

DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 17: The most recent Development and Climate Days prior to Doha was held in Durban, South Africa, in 2011. It focused on effective climate change adaptation planning, in response to the decision taken in 2010 under the Cancún Adaptation Framework to invite all countries, and especially LDCs, to develop National Adaptation Plans. IISD Coverage of Development and Adaptation Days at COP 17: http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop17/dcd/

ADAPTATION PRACTITIONERS DAYS

APD is a new interactive event which aims to share lessons from more than 10 years of adaptation financing through the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF). The two Funds were established under the Marrakesh Accords at COP 7 in 2001, and are managed by the GEF. The LDCF addresses the special needs of the 49 LDCs that are especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change, supporting the implementation of concrete, urgent and immediate adaptation measures in key development sectors. So far, it has financed the preparation of National Adaptation Programmes of Actions (NAPAs) in all 49 countries, and the implementation of 88 NAPA-related projects. The SCCF, meanwhile, has financed 52 projects and programmes for adaptation and technology transfer in developing countries. The SCCF was established to finance projects relating to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification.

WELCOME AND INTRODUCTORY REMARKS FOR D&C DAYS AND APD EVENTS

Saleemul Huq, IIED, opened the D&C Days and APD events on Saturday, 1 December, reminding participants that the event marks the tenth anniversary of D&C Days. He described the evolution of the event from a forum to bring together the few people working on adaptation among the “sea of people working on mitigation” at UNFCCC COP 8 in New Delhi, India, in 2002, to the two-day D&C Days event, with the added purpose of attracting development actors to engage with climate change. He said D&C Days have achieved their purpose of providing a relaxed venue to discuss adaptation. He then handed over the event to the new organizers, the Red Cross/ Red Crescent Climate Centre and the GEF.

Sam Bickersteth, CDKN, agreed that D&C Days had served the aim of keeping critical issues such as injustice and poverty reduction at the heart of the climate discussion. He said innovation and taking risks could drive transformative change, and invited participants to explore issues with new lenses and different perspectives.

Kyosuke Inada, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), encouraged participants to provide feedback on how to improve policymaking and implementation of adaptation programmes, especially with regard to improved utilization of climate science, assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning.

Bonizella Biagini, Head, Adaptation Program, GEF, outlined the objectives of the first APD noting that the time was ripe for sharing lessons and experiences on adaptation from the field to benefit COP negotiators.

Moderator Maarten van Aalst, Climate Centre, explained that the D&C Days and APD would be held at the same venue sequentially over the two days, with several side events.

REPORT OF DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE DAYS AT COP 18

DAY 1

THE MARKETPLACE: D&C Days started with a “Marketplace” facilitated by Madeleen Helmer, Climate Centre. Helmer described the Marketplace as a space to connect with producers and consumers of innovative approaches to climate-smart development. She invited participants to “speed network” in the first session through a lightning round of three minute face-to-face introductions, to get a snapshot of the type of knowledge, expertise and networking opportunities offered in the marketplace.

CLIMATE, DISASTERS AND DEVELOPMENT – INNOVATIVE LEARNING AND DIALOGUE SESSION: This session consisted of a participatory, game-based activity specifically designed for D&C Days, that aimed at engaging participants in investment decisions that have collective consequences. Pablo Suarez, Climate Centre, introduced the “D&C Game” as a modified version of the climate game “Paying for Predictions,” which enables players to think about the cost, value, and use of early warning information in development decisions.

In the game, a group of players representing a trio of actors – national decision makers, provincial governments and donors – were asked to make a series of policy decisions on whether to spend their allocated resources (beans) to pay for disaster preparedness, risk reduction, or damages. At each round, the roll of the dice determined whether the country was affected by flooding, while new unexpected elements (such as climate change impacts) were introduced as the game advanced. The “winner” was the actor who retained as many beans as possible at the end of the game, while losers held the largest number of red stones (humanitarian crises).

Participants were drawn into the complexities of climate-related decision making as part of the game, and described the frustrations and anxieties of making the right decisions in feedback forms. Many felt the training they had received in dealing with real-life situations, for instance on scenario and probability, helped them make prudent decisions in the game.

GROUP WORK: In this session, four sub-groups were formed to deliberate on: integrating climate services into climate-smart development; mechanisms of social exclusion and how to address them; climate financing at the sub-national level; and loss and damage.

DAY 2

REFINING QUESTIONS AND INSIGHTS ON CLIMATE SMART DEVELOPMENT: When D&C Days resumed in plenary during the second half of Sunday, 2 December, Maarten van Aalst, Climate Centre, asked the four sub-group facilitators from the previous day to summarize their discussions.

Reporting on loss and damage, Koko Warner, United Nations University - Institute for Environment and Human Security first outlined the status of this issue at COP 18 and welcomed an agreement by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to formulate a draft decision on this issue. She reiterated that the time has come to seriously consider the “what if” questions that arise from not adjusting sufficiently or fast enough to the impacts of climate change. She outlined three key areas for research, policy and practice: understanding loss and damage from a “big picture” perspective; developing measurement tools and indicators; and enhancing the role of the UNFCCC as a platform for dialogue, support and advocacy for the most vulnerable communities.

Arame Tall, Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, reported on discussions about integrating climate services into climate-smart development, observing that climate services are becoming big business and it is essential to “do it right.” Noting the difficulty of effectively communicating climate change messages, she highlighted some possible approaches discussed by the group, including bringing together a range of “end user communities” who can reach out to multiple audiences. She also stressed the need to create a community of practice and announced that the group had launched an online discussion to continue the conversation. Commenting on the interest generated in the group’s discussions, moderator van Aalst noted the growing awareness among development practitioners that the UNFCCC process offers a lot of benefits for their work.

Smita Nakhooda, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), reported on discussions on sub-national climate finance, noting the group focused on strategies to effectively use climate finance to meet the needs of the most vulnerable. She noted that while there is broad agreement about the central role of sub-national governments in delivering development finance at community level, decentralized approaches also increase the complexity of managing climate funds. She highlighted some interesting practical experiences shared by group members, such as the recent launch of the Philippines People’s Survival Fund that provides local communities with direct access to resources to implement adaptation projects. She also highlighted the Adaptation Fund’s recognition of both national and local institutions in adaptation planning and noted a number of international initiatives to monitor sub-national implementation processes for scaling up delivery.

Edward Cameron, World Resources Institute, reported on discussions in the mechanisms of social exclusion group. Noting that inequalities negatively impact adaptive capacity, he highlighted five “A’s” that could help improve inclusion in UNFCCC processes: access, amplify, assistance, advocacy and alternatives. On access, he emphasized the need for national delegations to take account of the needs of vulnerable stakeholders and make decision-making processes and information more accessible. On amplifying the voices of the poor, he noted the need for effective champions for vulnerable groups and for increasing the coverage of these groups in the media. On assistance, he stressed the need to repackage complex legal and political texts in diverse languages and for capacity building support to enable more stakeholders to make a meaningful input. On advocacy, he stressed the need to focus on national level processes to influence the agenda where it really matters. Finally, noting that the COP process is most accessible to, and influenced by, the “elites” he underlined the need to build up experience through working across a range of alternative networking spaces and multilateral platforms.

Responding to the presentations, one participant called for a greater focus on exit strategies to build the capacity of communities to manage their own adaptation processes once external support is phased out.

Facilitator van Aalst then invited Pablo Suarez to report on the outcome of a game called “Bitten” that was played over the first week at the Qatar National Convention Centre, the venue of COP 18, where people are divided into two “humans” and “mosquitoes.” During the game, humans choose to either protect themselves from being bitten, or to remove an egg from a breeding ground.  Mosquitoes choose to bite humans or to lay eggs to continue to populate a breeding ground. Suarez described it as the first ever “pervasive game” in a COP. Based on a quick survey of participants, he noted that while humans had won this time with 200 points compared to 190 points for mosquitoes, changing climate might enhance the odds for mosquitoes in future. He thanked Antidote, the creators of the game, for their contribution.

FAST PACED REFLECTIONS ON DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION DILEMMAS: Introducing a panel Moderator van Aalst, invited them to reflect on development and adaptation dilemmas.

Ajay Mathur, Green Climate Fund, highlighted three central messages. First, he noted the need to understand the areas and sectors where climate will have adverse impacts and the range of available tools and institutional frameworks and the ability to cope. Second, he noted the need for alternative tools and changes in management approaches. He said that this will require the ability to design flexible packages that respond to different local contexts and to document standards, approaches and change methodologies, particularly in relation to communicating that things need to be done differently. Third, he emphasized the need for public policy, regulation and finance to keep up with the pace of change, highlighting the need to fund pilots to demonstrate how to make change happen and build the required capacity.

Colleen Macklin, Parsons the New School for Design, said games are “an antidote to PowerPoint” because of their ability to spark the engagement of players. She reiterated that games have been a part of human culture since before writing was invented and noted their ability to help people improve skills, and bridge the generation gap. On their contribution to understanding climate issues, she characterized games as “the cultural medium of systems” because they enable us to understand complexity and see ourselves as active participants in solving problems. Emphasizing that a good game developer must have empathy with the situation of the player, she said it is this quality that makes games particularly valuable for enhancing understanding of “this systemic and hugely human crisis.”

Jason Blackstock, Oxford University, made the case for extreme geoengineering technologies as an increasingly feasible alternative to a situation in which “our best mitigation efforts are not enough and our adaptive capacity is overwhelmed.” Referring to the cooling effects experienced after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines two decades ago, he said we now have the science to artificially imitate the effects of a volcano at a fraction of the cost of current mitigation budgets, with “only 20 planes and 1 billion dollars a year.” He noted that a number of international fora, such as the International Maritime Organization and the Convention on Biological Diversity have started to discuss geoengineering solutions and stressed that such discussions must also tackle the issue of whether these emerging technologies serve the needs of the most vulnerable. He also noted the potential of using games to help scientists to understand the social, ethical and political dimensions. Concluding, Blackstock challenged practitioners to get involved in the debate, noting it might change the climate debate substantially and “this audience should be part of it.”

Mary Robinson, Mary Robinson Foundation - Climate Justice, said she had listened with great interest to the issues emerging from the D&C discussions as they offer entry points for engaging more actively with the formal process to make it more political and urgent. She observed that at the national level “no one knows what the politicians are doing at this COP so they are not being pushed.” She stressed that it is critical to take the next step of linking the international dialogue with national-level advocacy to create “constituencies of demand” and link them to a global movement to focus public attention on the injustice of climate change. She said the agenda should be guided by the science, but still tell the human stories that demonstrate the imperative for rapidly scaling up the transfer of clean energy technologies for the most vulnerable regions and communities. Underscoring that affected communities are already combining mitigation and adaptation measures for their survival, she challenged UNFCCC delegates to “stop behaving like they’re in a trade negotiation.” In the face of unprecedented threats to the planet, she stressed, human solidarity is critical, hence “we should be sharing, not settling scores and hiding our cards.”

THE MARKET PLACE: Madeleen Helmer initiated another round of  “speed networking,” inviting participants to share innovative approaches to climate smart development during quick interactions.

CLOSING SESSION: In the closing session, Moderator Saleemul Huq invited a panel of four to share personal experiences of contributions that they had made, or activities that they were proud to share, or had learned from.

Preety Bhandari, Asian Development Bank, described her role in the formation of the Green Climate Fund, where she said she contributed towards a balanced business model in which adaptation was given due recognition. In a subsequent intervention, she described a tagging system for climate funds at the ADB.

Atiur Rehman, Governor of the Central Bank of Bangladesh, described a number of his initiatives in making the Central Bank green and inclusive, including: increased automation to reduce paper use; guidelines on not funding industrial activities that could harm the environment; reports on carbon footprints; and funds earmarked for loans for women, education and green energy. Rehman said a key challenge was to ensure that the funds reach the most vulnerable, and described a national system to promote compliance and transparency.

Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio, Rockefeller Foundation, described the work of the Foundation in creating a climate change resilience network, and said she was proud of the work that their partners had done, listing initiatives as setting up national agricultural institutes in Africa. She described the challenges she faced in the early days of trying to fund adaptation activities through the Foundation, when the focus was primarily on mitigation. She said Foundations such as the Rockefeller are uniquely positioned to do what multilateral development banks could not, adding Foundation funds are limited but flexible and fast, and could be used to test out new ideas and innovate. She also highlighted the importance of capacity building for civil society in developing countries.

Timmons Roberts, Brown University, said he was an academic who wanted to make a difference, and described his work in bringing students to D&C Days. He said that as a sociologist he was puzzled by why developing countries agreed to “bad deals” in Copenhagen and Cancun, with “pledge and review” instead of top-down targets. He felt funding was a big part of the puzzle, and described several initiatives to ensure better transparency and accountability in reporting climate change contributions and additionality of climate finance.

In the discussion that followed, participants discussed how to best engage the mainstream private sector in addressing climate change, particularly adaptation. Del Rio outlined a few options, including making a business case for engagement, or through policies and guidelines. Bhandari described a public-private partnership to be launched by ADB.

Another participant said that sometimes the problem was not the lack of funds but rather a lack of capacity to absorb funds at the local level and deliver results, and asked how this could be addressed. Del Rio responded that although a capacity gap exists, the lack of capacity to absorb funds could be a seen as a paternalistic excuse not to deliver. Rehman said there is capacity all around, but that the question is how it can tapped. He emphasized public-private partnerships.

On the issue of mainstreaming climate finance, Bhandari said programmatic approaches have not yet “found a magic wand.” She highlighted incentives to scale-up the project-based approach, and promote country ownership.

In response to a question on the role of population control in climate change, Huq and Rehman outlined progress made in reducing the rate of population growth in Bangladesh. Timmons agreed that such measures were important, but highlighted the impact of affluence on climate change, saying the emissions of one Bangladeshi are a small fraction of the emissions of one American. Highlighting equity and justice elements, he said both overconsumption and population control should be addressed.

At the end of the session Huq told participants the Adaptation Fund could now accept contributions from individuals and invited participants to donate through the Adaptation Fund Board website.

Following a small celebration to mark the tenth anniversary of D&C Days, the meeting was closed at 5:30 pm by van Aalst.

REPORT OF ADAPTATION PRACTITIONERS DAYS AT COP 18

On Saturday, 1 December, Bonizella Biagini, GEF, moderated the introductory session of APD, which she said would bring experience from the field on reducing vulnerability and increasing climate resilience.

Naoko Ishii, Chief Executive Officer, GEF, welcomed participants to the first APD. Thanking the sponsors, she said the growing intensity and frequency of extreme weather around the world is a harsh reminder of the urgency of adaptation to climate change. She stressed that incremental improvement in the way environment is managed is not enough, and transformational change on a global scale is needed. Successful innovative experiences such as those to be presented at APD could point the way to this change, she noted. Listing several projects funded by the LDCF and SCCF, she said practitioners are the real champions of adaptation, and could help the transition to the realm of action. She called on participants to focus on the lessons from the experiences shared at APD that will foster and enable innovation for adaptation.

Speaking on behalf of UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres, UNFCCC Chief of Staff Daniele Violetti said climate change impacts are placing an additional burden on vulnerable countries that already have a low adaptive capacity, but also present opportunities such as the chance to invest in clean energy. He called on vulnerable countries to use all the tools available, including foreign direct investment, the technology mechanism and the Clean Development Mechanism to maximize the opportunity.

Richard Muyungi, Chair, Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), expressed his support for APD, noting it represents a new milestone in the adaptation process and implementation of the Nairobi Work Programme.

Mary Barton-Dock, Director, Climate Policy and Finance Department, World Bank, highlighted findings of a recent World Bank-commissioned study of the latest climate science, carried out by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, Germany. She underscored the key finding of the report that global temperatures are likely to rise by 4°C by the end of the century, resulting in extreme heatwaves and life-threatening sea level rise. She noted that climate change particularly affects the poorest regions of the world and is likely to substantially undermine development goals. Stressing that urgent, decisive and “joined up” action is needed, she said the World Bank will redouble its efforts to mobilize and scale up climate finance to mainstream climate mitigation and adaptation in development decisions, with a focus on cities, sustainable agriculture and coastal management.

Yannick Glemarec, Executive Coordinator, UN Development Programme-GEF, noted that the gap in adaptation funding cannot be bridged by public finance alone and stressed the need to use available resources in a catalytic way. Noting the need for win-win policy solutions that integrate adaptation and development objectives, he highlighted some recent successes including: the introduction of improved farming practices in Cambodia that led to an 18% increase in rice yields; the introduction of drought resilient crops in Namibia; and an initiative by two South African insurance companies to help agri-businesses to invest in precautionary measures. Observing that the key challenge today is scaling up, he underscored the need to share and replicate such success stories.

Keith Alverson, UN Environment Programme (UNEP), emphasized the ecosystem-based approach to adaptation promoted by UNEP, based on harnessing the natural resilience and multiple benefits provided by ecosystems.

Alexander Müller, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, highlighted three messages: adaptation is a key component to achieve world food security; adaptation must be seen in the broader context of sustainable development instead of creating a new silo; and several good practices already exist, which can help communities adapt.

Gottfried Gemmingen, Germany, emphasized the importance of the GEF, and of jumpstarting adaptation action on the ground. He noted Germany’s commitment to the LDCF, saying it is a useful fund for developing countries to implement adaptation projects. He described adaptation as a different way of looking at development, saying the current forum could provide further insights into what effective adaptation means.

Tapugao Falefou, Tuvalu, described the threats from climate change in his country, which he said was a small island state and an LDC, and only few meters above sea level. He said Tuvalu has prepared a NAPA, and implemented some of the activities listed in it with funding from the LDCF. He said his country has suffered from loss of land and damage to property, and called for support for the loss and damage negotiations in the UNFCCC.

Pa Ousman Jarju, from the Gambia, also Chair of the LDC Group, reported that around US$680 million in adaptation funding has been mobilized so far, for more than 160 projects in 46 LDCs. Stressing that “we are here to showcase success and value for money in improving the livelihoods of people on the ground,” he thanked all development partners for their support so far and called for additional efforts to meet the funding shortfall.

ADAPTATION IN PRACTICE – AFRICA, THE MIDDLE EAST AND ASIA

Following the introductory session, participants broke into two parallel sessions, one on Adaptation in Africa and the Middle East, and the other on Adaptation in Asia.

ADAPTATION IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST: The session was moderated by Saliha Dobardzic, GEF and chaired by Pa Ousman Jarju, the Gambia. Presenting his country’s NAPA, Jarju said it is focused on enhancing climate change resilience through early warning. He reported that following initial baseline studies, a two-phase action plan was developed. Activities concluded during the first phase included purchasing meteorological equipment and vehicles for data collection and monitoring, installing fencing to protect weather stations, and training 18 technicians and meteorological experts. Identifying the lack of thorough analysis of socioeconomic data, including the relevance of data to users, as a key gap, he noted that a series of training workshops will be held for members of technical advisory committees and multidisciplinary training teams at project sites. On the way forward, he noted that an additional US$8 million is needed to set up a fully functional early warning system. He also highlighted the need to establish a public-private platform to mobilize the private sector in climate-proofing initiatives.

Aloysius Kamperewera, Malawi, reported on the implementation of the LDCF-funded project, Climate Adaptation for Rural Livelihoods and Agriculture (CARLA), being implemented in three of the most vulnerable districts. Among activities carried out so far, he highlighted participatory vulnerability assessments at the community level and guidelines for adaptation planning processes that are integrated in existing development planning systems. Noting the lack of funding to scale up CARLA to other vulnerable districts, he stressed, among others, the need to: carefully manage expectations in neighbouring areas; develop a full and flexible package of adaptation actions to better meet the range of needs on the ground; and integrate social and physical vulnerability needs as well as present and future energy needs in adaptation planning.

Mathewos Hunde, Ethiopia, highlighted results of a pilot district-level adaptation project in Ethiopia’s dry northeastern region. He noted the overall objective is to: develop a range of climate-smart solutions by combining early warning information and communication; introduce drought tolerant and high yielding crop varieties and improved farming practices; improve livestock restocking and community-based natural resource management; and enhance smallholders’ access to markets and agricultural value chains. Among achievements so far, he highlighted the rehabilitation of more than 3000 hectares (ha) of land in six watersheds and integration monitoring information collected by the meteorology and agricultural departments to provide reliable weekly weather updates to farmers.

Rachid Firadi, Morocco, outlined the objectives of the country’s agricultural and water development strategy, known as Plan Maroc Vert. He noted the strategy aims to accelerate agricultural modernization, driven by the private sector, while also addressing “solidarity-based” agriculture practiced by smallholder farmers in dryland areas, mountainous zones and oases. Referring to the impacts of a severe drought in 1994-5 that led to a 45% drop in agricultural GDP, he stressed the need to address the vulnerability of smallholders through knowledge transfer on appropriate technology and market solutions and mobilizing additional financial and human resources to scale up adoption of proven adaptation practices. He concluded that while the project is still in its early days, 900 farmers so far have received training and 50% of the available investment funds have been utilized at the community level.

Rose Mukakomeye, Rwanda, highlighted ongoing activities on integrated watershed management in flood prone areas. Noting that climate change is accelerating the incidence and scale of flooding, landslides and other disasters, she said the establishment of a Department of Climate Change and International Obligations in 2009 aimed to ensure a coordinated national response at sufficient scale. She outlined a number of awareness raising activities carried out so far, including: carrying out a series of training workshops on mainstreaming climate change in district-level development planning and publication of a local language “training of trainers” manual; developing an atlas of the changing environment and implications of climate change resilience; producing a documentary on traditional coping mechanisms; and upgrading the country’s meteorological forecasting capacity with an accompanying website to make climate information more widely accessible.

Dini Abdallah Omar, Djibouti, presented on an adaptation project in vulnerable coastal zones. He said coastal zones in Djibouti are vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding, and mangroves and freshwater systems are already degraded because of anthropogenic pressures and climate change. He said the project, part of the country’s NAPA, is located in an area with high levels of poverty where local people depend on mangrove forests for fisheries and tourism. Listing the three main components of the project as research, policy revision and training, and ecosystem rehabilitation, he said work had already started on research, reviving 20 ha of mangrove forests and establishing a nursery. He listed challenges, including the lack of local resources and cultural barriers to achieving gender balance.

Ibrahim El Shinnawy, Egypt, presented on adaptation in the Nile delta to climate change and sea level rise through integrated coastal zone management. Following a 2008 study that defined the sectors and localities that would be affected by sea level rise, he said a project was launched to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerability in the coastal zone, which involved improving the regulatory framework, institutional capacity, and public awareness and preparedness.

In the discussion that followed, participants discussed: the dangers of maladaptation due to the lack of adequate information; the role of private finance; ensuring the long-term sustainability of projects; and mainstreaming and integration. Panelists highlighted a number of criteria for successful implementation as well as challenges at the community level, including, inter alia: facilitating community processes to ensure that communities are fully involved in identifying adaptation strategies; dealing with competing needs under resource constraints; convincing farmers and policy makers to invest for the long term; integrating adaptation strategies within broader national strategies for sustainable development and food security; and ensuring that adaptation projects tackle the total needs at community level by contributing to food security, water and sanitation and sustainable energy.

ADAPTATION IN ASIA: The session on adaptation in Asia was chaired by Pepetua Latasi, Chair of the Least Developed Countries Expert Group, and moderated by Saleemul Huq, IIED.

Kyaw Win, Ministry of Primary Industries, Fiji, presented on the Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change project, funded by the SCCF and implemented by UNDP and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme. He said the project focused on food production and food security; coastal area management; and water sector projects in 13 south Pacific countries. Win said food production and security was the main focus in Fiji, and he described efforts to deal with flooding and saltwater intrusion.

Paramesh Nandy, UNDP Bangladesh, presented a project on community-based adaptation through coastal afforestation, aimed at enhancing the resilience of communities and protective ecosystems in some of the poorest areas of Bangladesh. Nandy said the project: established 6,372 ha of coastal afforestation that will absorb more than 600,000 tons of carbon annually; improved the adaptive capacity of 19,657 vulnerable coastal households through livelihood diversification; and empowered coastal communities by promoting land ownership and participation in decision-making. He said the restoration of barren coastal land and livelihood diversification through a “Forest, Fish, and Fruit” model had increased earnings in the area.

Sum Thy, Cambodia Ministry of Environment, presented on LDCF-funded projects on promoting resilience in the agricultural sector and coastal zone of Cambodia. He said his country was vulnerable due to limited capacity and a large rural population dependent on agriculture, adding that floods and droughts had exacerbated the situation. He said the projects started with Vulnerability Risk Assessments that take into account gender, and emphasized that the project already showed an 18% increase in yield of rice production. He also described a coastal zone project focused on communities living in low lying areas along the coast impacted by floods, which included activities such as rehabilitation of mangroves and livelihood alternatives.

Wenhang Huang, National Development and Reform Commission, China, presented on a project on mainstreaming adaptation in irrigated agriculture in China. She said the project, partly funded by the SCCF, had two components: to introduce, demonstrate and implement specific adaptation measures in selected demonstration areas; and to integrate appropriate adaptation measures in an existing project in the Huan, Huai and Hai River Basin, the breadbasket of China, which already suffers a shortage of water. Adaptation measures include water conservation and integrated comprehensive water saving technologies, she said, adding that the activities resulted in increasing the water production rate, increased awareness among farmers, and other benefits such as policy change.

Govardhan Das, India, presented on adaptation to climate change in drought stricken areas of south India. He emphasized the importance of rain-fed agriculture, particularly for poor smallholder farmers, and described the Strategic Priority on Adaptation to Climate Change project in seven districts aimed at sustainable land and water management, and awareness and capacity building. He said the project included participatory climate monitoring and farmer climate schools, and stressed that farmer participation was a common component. Among the challenges he listed: the need to demystify climate science and its uncertainties; land use changes; rural conflicts; ensuring participation of vulnerable groups and women; dealing with multiple stakeholders; reporting; and recruiting and retaining professionals.

In the discussion that followed, participants discussed how to ensure the sustainability of projects beyond the funding period; baseline data; and how to address future climate impacts in addition to current climate variability. Das said in the absence of reliable information on future impacts, the focus on current variability was deliberate. Moderator Huq said one way to address future impacts is to keep in mind the legacy of the project, and ensure positive impacts that will outlast the duration of the project itself.

ADAPTATION IN PRACTICE – DEVELOPMENT SECTORS

APD resumed on the morning of  Sunday, 2 December, to discuss adaptation practices in the development sectors. Discussions continued in two parallel sessions on disaster risk management, coastal zone management and health, and food security and water resource management.

ADAPTATION ACTIONS IN DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT, COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH: The session, chaired by Cinzia Losenno, ADB and moderated by Junu Shrestha, GEF, provided a brief overview of ADB support for disaster risk reduction (DRR). She noted that the ADB’s 2020 strategy adopted the mainstreaming of DRR and adaptation as two central pillars in its development assistance. She also highlighted ADB’s well-established partnership with the GEF, with 26 projects currently underway, and noted that the partnership is increasingly focusing on innovative approaches to building capacity for long term adaptation planning.

Riccardo Ciccozzi, Europa Re, presented a business case for scaling up catastrophe insurance in South East Europe (SEE). He noted that while the SEE region is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, insurance cover is extremely low with only 1% penetration in some countries. Emphasizing the economic impacts, he noted that in Germany, less than 1% of GDP is needed to recover from extremely rare natural events while in some SEE countries the figure is as high as 70%. This makes it difficult to develop high quality insurance products, he said, noting that Europa Re’s contribution will be to invest in high resolution and reliable catastrophe models and risk management systems, as this is one of the primary barriers for entry for SEE insurers. He noted, however, that additional efforts will be needed to promote public awareness, improve the quality of insurance products and help governments to develop appropriate policies. He said three countries, Serbia, Macedonia and Albania, are participating in the first phase of the project.

The presentation elicited a lot of interest from participants, with an extensive discussion on the feasibility of setting up similar models in other regions, particularly in SIDS. On the role of re-insurance companies as catalysts, Ciccozzi noted the need to promote insurance products that are simple, affordable, accessible and reliable for domestic consumers as well as small and medium sized enterprises. In the SEE context, he said a key challenge is overcoming the high level of public mistrust of insurance companies, stressing that the starting point is to develop reliable modeling tools and work with traditional insurers to build their confidence to develop high quality, market-oriented products and to quickly settle insurance claims. He cited Turkey, Czech Republic and Hungary as examples of countries where market penetration has expanded to more than 50% due to a combination of government support and private investments.

Aderito Santana, National Meteorological Institute, São Tomé and Príncipe, highlighted the challenges of implementing a NAPA in a country that is essentially made up of tiny volcanic islands. Emphasizing the vulnerability, not only of the predominantly fishing communities but the entire country, to sea level rise and accelerated coastal erosion, he noted the project focus is on early warning, safety at sea and coastline protection. Among results so far, he highlighted: the procurement of a marine meteorological station; purchasing safety equipment and providing safety at sea training for 485 fishermen; participatory vulnerability mapping; and engineering designs for structural work.

Ikam Moaniba, Office of the President, Kiribati, stressed that his country faces a very real and imminent threat of total eradication due to sea level rise. He outlined a range of  “small and urgent projects” being undertaken to cope with current disasters, while simultaneously mapping a number of future scenarios that may include evacuation of the entire population. He outlined the objectives of the Kiribati Adaptation Project, established in 2003 with funding from the GEF Trust Fund and LDCF, and co-financing from Japan, Australia and New Zealand. He said the project was currently in its second stage, which entails piloting coastal hazard and risk diagnosis approaches, coral ecosystems monitoring, mangrove replanting and coastal seawall design. In conclusion, he urged the international community to understand the urgency and seriousness of the country’s situation and find ways to scale up and expedite their assistance.

Discussing the two SIDS presentations, participants wondered how the investments made could be sustained in the face of more frequent storms and flooding and accelerated coastal erosion, which are devastating physical infrastructure and livelihoods. A representative of Wetlands International mentioned that they are exploring possibilities for “hybrid engineering” solutions, whereby mangrove planting is combined with natural engineering techniques to reduce coastal erosion and protect the coastline against storm surges, tsunamis and other extreme events.

Responding to a final question of whether migration is the only option left, Moaniba stated: “We are getting to that point even if we don’t want to.”

ADAPTATION ACTIONS IN FOOD SECURITY AND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: This session was moderated by Roland Sundstrom, GEF, and chaired by Cassandra De Young, FAO. De Young said the LDCF and SCCF projects presented at the session would demonstrate the particular vulnerabilities of the agricultural sector and share the best available knowledge to make a difference at the national and local scales. She said not all change is bad, but not everyone may be able to benefit from the opportunities that rise.

Bake Safi Solange, Niger, presented on a four-year project aimed at improving the resilience of food production systems and the capacity of the population to adapt to climate change. She said the activities under the project include: diffusion of improved seeds that could triple production; restoration of pastoral land; income generation particularly for women through vegetable farming and sewing centers; and training on generating meteorological information.

Alain Ky-Zerbo, Burkina Faso, described the activities of a NAPA-based project focused on agriculture, water and forest resources. He emphasized that adaptation activities are cross-sectoral and that the project worked to coordinate stakeholders from different sectors including meteorology, agricultural scientists and environmental monitoring. He said a key activity in the project is the stabilization of sand dunes to avoid loss of habitations and agricultural land, and noted that 50 hectares of degraded land has already been restored. In addition, he said the project helped mostly women acquire livestock, and that meteorological capacity is being improved.

Mohamed Soumare, Mali, described ecosystem deterioration and loss of grazing land in Mali, and a four-year project to strengthen the capacity of the agricultural sector. He said the project covers six priorities identified in Mali’s NAPA, including: dissemination of improved seed varieties; improved meteorological information; and awareness raising. He listed measures, including: the adoption of improved water management and soil conservation practices; better seed varieties; and improved farmer practices. Soumare emphasized the need for a participatory approach to climate proofing, the use of local knowledge, and the importance of political support for adaptation activities.

In the discussion that followed, participants talked about: the importance of a bottom-up approach and of local solutions; financing at the local level; delays on the implementation of adaptation projects; the challenges of matching bottom-up and top-down priorities; and the involvement of local authorities.

Adil Mohamed Ali, Sudan, presented on implementing NAPA priority interventions to build resilience in the agricultural and water sector in Sudan, where he said 70% of the population is dependent on climate sensitive livelihoods. He described a project focused on: improving access to water for farming and agricultural practices; improved crop varieties; land management; and the provision of evidence-based extension services. He said activities include, among other things: water harvesting, resulting in a 50-150% increase in yields; improved irrigation solutions, including solar water pumps, resulting in 20-60% increase in productivity; improved farming practices resulting in higher household incomes; and sand dune fixation through micro-fixing and planting seedlings.

Aaron Chigona, Zimbabwe, presented on a five-year project in Chiredzi on coping with drought and climate change by addressing declining pastures and livestock productivity, increasing water scarcity, poverty, and flooding. He said the project focused on expanding the knowledge base, demonstrating options, developing local capacity, and disseminating lessons. Chigona described key outcomes as: capacity building for policy makers; improved livelihoods; improved access to climate information; and replication. He said challenges include: macro-economic instability; limited budgets; and lack of financing, business drivers and markets to incentivize adaptation.

Alpha Bockari, Sierra Leone, presented on a project on integrating adaptation into agricultural production and food security using climate information and services, to promote smallholder agricultural production and commercialization. He said the project aimed at capacity building, improved access to resources, and planning for adaptation. Among the activities of the project he described the generation of climate information and “pre-commercialization” in agriculture activities including production, processing and marketing. He said expected outcomes include, among other things, an increase in the agriculture sectors contribution to the national economy,  enhanced capacity of line-ministries and stakeholders, and additional employment for youth. Noting implementation was in process, he said this had resulted in the rehabilitation of more than 500,000 ha of swamp and improved food production.

In the ensuing discussion, participants highlighted: experiences with the involvement of different line ministries in project activities; the use of solar pumps; and the exchange of information and coordination between countries.

Session chair De Young thanked the participants, saying the projects described a mixed portfolio of approaches employing policy, information and technology tools. She highlighted efforts to involve the most vulnerable, diversify livelihoods, and the importance of cross-fertilization between sectors and stakeholders. She said it was encouraging that many of the projects were from NAPAs, and noted the common challenges related to practical discrepancies and in start up and implementation, which had nevertheless been surmounted. She encouraged continued communication and collaboration among countries and stakeholders.

Bonizella Biagini, GEF, closed the ADP technical sessions at 1:05 pm, summarizing the event and noting that she hoped the APD allowed the voice of adaptation practitioners in the field to be heard by the negotiators and civil society.

During an ADP side event that followed the closing, a documentary on climate change challenges due to rapid glacial melt in the Himalayas, “Revealed, the Himalayan Meltdown” was screened, featuring, among other things, the LDCF project in Bhutan on Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding. The event was chaired by Ugyen Tshewang, Secretary of National Environment Commission, Bhutan.

Upcoming Meetings

19th Meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board [rescheduled]: The Adaptation Fund Board supervises and manages the Adaptation Fund under the authority and guidance of the countries that are party to the Kyoto Protocol. dates: 11-14 December 2012   location: Bonn (Nordrhein-Westfalen), Germany  contact: Jeannette Jin Yu Lee phone: +1 (202) 473-7499   fax: +1(202) 522-2720 email: jlee21@thegef.org  www: http://www.adaptation-fund.org/page/calendar

107th Session of the IFAD Executive Board: The IFAD Executive Board has full authority to decide on the programme of work, approval of projects, programmes and grants and to adopt/recommend action, pending the final approval of the Governing Council, on matters related to policy, the annual administrative budget, applications for membership and staffing within the Fund.  dates: 12-13 December 2012   location: Rome (Lazio), Italy phone: +39 6504591   fax: +39 65043463 email: ifad@ifad.org   www: http://www.ifad.org/events/index.htm 

Third IRENA General Assembly: The third session of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) Assembly, IRENA’s supreme governing body, will finalize remaining institution-building issues, report on its progress to Member States, and renew its mandate on encouraging the global uptake of renewable energy. The events is part of Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (ADSW).  dates: 13-14 January 2013   location: Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi), United Arab Emirates phone: +971-2-4179001 email: secretariat@irena.org   www: http://www.abudhabisustainabilityweek.com/

International Water Summit 2013: The inaugural International Water Summit will be hosted by Masdar and provide an opportunity for participants to network with global politicians, experts from the international water community and leaders from the public and private sectors, and collaborate in the development of solutions for some of the world’s most water-scarce regions. The Summit is part of Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (ADSW).  dates: 15-17 January 2013   location: Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi), United Arab Emirates www: http://www.abudhabisustainabilityweek.com/  

Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference (ADIREC): The Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference (ADIREC) brings together representatives from government, the private sector and civil society to discuss the advancement of renewable energy. The event is part of Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (ADSW). dates: 15-17 January 2013   location: Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi), United Arab Emirates   contact: Jonathan Skeen REN 21 Consultant   phone: +33 1 44 37 50 98   email: jonathan.skeen@ren21.net   www: http://www.abudhabisustainabilityweek.com/  

World Future Energy Summit (WFES) 2013: Hosted by Masdar, and acting as the centrepiece of the Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week, the sixth World Future Energy Summit (WFES) 2013 aims to bring together global leaders in policy, technology and business to discuss the state of the art, develop new ways of thinking and shape the future of renewable energy. dates: 15-17 January 2013  venue: The Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre (ADNEC) location: Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi), United Arab Emirates   www: http://www.abudhabisustainabilityweek.com/ 

Thirteenth Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change: The 13th RRI Dialogue, sub-titled “Status of Tenure Reforms in West and Central Africa and Impacts of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions, Extractive and Infrastructure Sectors,” is being organized by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), the Commission des Forets d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC), the Cameroonian Ministry of Forest and Wildlife (MINFOF), and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Participants will take stock of tenure reform in Central and West Africa since 2009, examining new pressures on forest lands from large scale land acquisitions, extractive industries, and infrastructure projects. dates: 23-25 January 2013   venue: Yaounde Conference Center   location: Yaounde (Centre), Cameroon contact: Boubacar Diarra   phone: +223 76 45 55 45 email: bdiarra@rightsandresources.org   www: http://www.rightsandresources.org/events.php?id=687

UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference and CST S-3: The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 2nd Scientific Conference will be held in Fortaleza, Brazil, during the 3rd special session of the Committee for Science and Technology (CST S-3). The scientific conference will be the main part of the CST session and will consider the theme “Economic assessment of desertification, sustainable land management and resilience of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas,” with a focus on two sub-topics: economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD); and costs and benefits of policies and practices addressing DLDD. dates: 4-7 February 2013   location: Fortaleza (Ceara), Brazil   contact: UNCCD Secretariat   phone: +49 228 815 2800   fax: +49 228 815 2898/99 email: secretariat@unccd.int   www: http://2sc.unccd.int/home/?HighlightID=111 

Second International Conference on Water Resources and Environmental Management (ICWRE 2013): This conference will convene around the theme “Water, Food, Energy Security and Climate Change,” and discussions will be organized around sub-themes including: water for sustainable future; global water security; water supply and sanitation; integrated water resources management (IWRM); and environment, water and health. The conference is being organized by Global Institute for Water, Environment, and Health (GIWEH), based in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Mohamadia School for Engineers, Rabat, Morocco, in partnership with UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. dates: 12-14 February 2013  location: Marrakesh (Marrakech), Morocco  contact: Amira Laribi   phone: +41 (0) 22 733 75 11  fax: +41 (0) 22 740 00 11   email: amira.laribi@icwre.com www: http://www.icwre.com/index.php

27th Session of UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum: The 27th session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC 27/GMEF) of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) is scheduled to convene from 18-22 February 2013, in Nairobi, Kenya. In pursuance of General Assembly resolution 53/242 (Report of the Secretary-General on environment and human settlements) of 28 July 1999, the Governing Council constitutes the annual ministerial-level global environmental forum in which participants gather to review important and emerging policy issues in the field of the environment.  dates: 18-22 February 2013   location: Nairobi (Nairobi Area), Kenya   contact: Secretary, Governing Bodies, UNEP   phone: +254-20 7623431   fax: +254-20 7623929   email: sgc.sgb@unep.org www: http://www.unep.org/ecalendar/contents/upcoming_events.asp 

High-level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP): The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), in collaboration with a number of UN agencies, international and regional organizations and key national agencies, are organizing the HMNDP in Geneva, Switzerland, in March 2013. HMNDP will provide practical insight into useful, science-based actions to address the key drought issues being considered by governments and the private sector under the UNCCD and the various strategies to cope with drought. dates: 11-15 March 2013   venue: International Conference Centre (CICG)  location: Geneva (Geneve), Switzerland   contact: M.V.K. Sivakumar, WMO  phone: +41 22 730 8380   fax: +41 22 730 80 42   email: msivakumar@wmo.int   www: http://www.unccd.int/Lists/SiteDocumentLibrary/HLM%20drought

Asia Water Week 2013: Organized by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asian Water Week 2013 will address ongoing efforts to reform water management policies and strengthen priority programmes. Focusing on the theme “Water Security for All” the meeting will cover issues including climate change, the water-food-energy nexus, disaster management, civil society, financing, private sector involvement and governance.  dates: 13-15 March 2013   location: Manila (Manila), Philippines   additional: ADB headquarters   contact: Ian Makin phone: +632 632 5803   www: http://www.adb.org/news/events/asia-water-week-2013  

UNFF 10: The focus of the tenth session of the UN Forum on Forests (UNFF 10) is forests and economic development, including agenda items on: forest products and services; national forest programmes and other sectoral policies and strategies; reducing risks and impacts of disasters; and benefits of forests and trees to urban communities.  dates: 8-19 April 2013   location: Istanbul (Istanbul), Turkey  contact: UNFF Secretariat   phone: +1-212-963-3401   fax: +1-917-367-3186   email: unff@un.org   www: http://www.un.org/esa/forests/session.html  

Fourth Clean Energy Ministerial: CEM4 will bring together ministers from more than 20 participating countries under the theme of “Technology and Business Innovation”. Topics that will be discussed include: progress by the 13 clean energy initiatives of CEM; enhancing cooperation between CEM governments; and the development of public-private partnerships to support clean energy development.  dates: 17-18 April 2013   location: New Delhi (Delhi), India   contact: CEM Secretariat www: http://www.cleanenergyministerial.org/events/cem4/index.html  

Fourth Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction: The aim of the Fourth Session is to continue the momentum into a durable and sustained effort from all actors to take shared responsibility in reducing risks and reinforcing resilience in our communities. The official agenda will be from 21-23 May.  dates: 19-23 May 2013 venue: International Conference Centre Geneva  location: Geneva, Switzerland   phone: +41-2291-78907   fax: +41-2291-78964   email: globalplatform@un.org   www: http://www.preventionweb.net/globalplatform/2013/ 

GEF Council Meeting: The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) Council meets twice per year to approve new projects with global environmental benefits in the GEF’s focal areas, and provide guidance to the GEF Secretariat and Agencies.  dates: 17-21 June 2013   venue: World Bank Headquarters   location: Washington (District of Columbia), United States of America   contact: GEF Secretariat   phone: 1 202 473-0508   fax: 1 202 522-3240 email:secretariat@thegef.org  www: http://www.thegef.org/gef/council_meetings  

19th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: The COP will take place in Warsaw, Poland.  dates: 11-22 November 2013   location: TBA   contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: 49-228-815-1000   fax: 49-228-815-1999 email: secretariat@unfccc.int  www: http://www.unfccc.int  

GLOSSARY

ADB
APD
CDKN
COP
D&C
GEF
IIED
IISD
IPCC
LDC
LDCF
NAPA
ODI
SEE
SBI
SBSTA
SCCF
SIDS
UNDP
UNEP
UNFCCC
Asian Development Bank
Adaptation Practitioners Days
Climate and Development Network
Conference of Parties
Development and Climate
Global Environment Facility
International Institute for Environment and Development
International Institute of Sustainable Development
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Least Developed Countries
Least Developed Countries Fund
National adaptation programmes of action
Overseas Development Institute
South and Eastern Europe
Subsidiary Body for Implementation
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
Special Climate Change Fund
Small Island Developing States
United Nations Development Programme
United
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
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The D&C Days and Adaptation Practitioners Days Bulletin is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <info@iisd.ca>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <enb@iisd.org>. This issue was written and edited by Wangu Mwangi and Anju Sharma. The Digital Editor is Brad Vincelette. The Editor is Robynne Boyd <robynne@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the Global Environment Facility Secretariat (GEF) and the Red Cross Climate Center. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from the Bulletin may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists (in HTML and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <http://www.iisd.ca/>. For information on the Bulletin, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>, +1-646-536-7556 or 300 East 56th St., 11D, New York, New York 10022, USA.

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