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IISD Reporting Services (IISD RS) is producing daily reports of selected side events of this meeting starting on Monday, 7 December 2009.
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10 December
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11 December
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ENB on the Side - A Special Report on Selected Side Events at the Fifteenth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Fifth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP 15 and COP/MOP 5)

7-18 December 2009 | Copenhagen, Denmark
 

IISDRS - UNDP - UNEP - FAO - UNFCCC


Youth participants at the SustainUS side event.
 
Events convened on Thursday, 10 December 2009
 
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Climate Change and Food Security: Unifying Commitment and Action in Land-Based Sectors
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Presented by UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and IFAD
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L-R: Ajay Vashee, International Federation of Agricultural Producers; Jacques Diouf, Director-General, FAO; Gilberto Câmara, Director, Brazilian National Institute of Space Research; Tom Vilsack, US Secretary of Agriculture; and Eva Kjer Hansen, Minister of Food Agriculture and Fisheries, Denmark.

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Eva Kjer Hansen, Minister of Food Agriculture and Fisheries, Denmark, stressed that there can be no food security without climate security, and that the agricultural sector is part of the solution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. She highlighted the importance of free trade and of investing in technologies ranging from organic to genetically modified crops.

Tom Vilsack, US Secretary of Agriculture, stressed the US’ attention to rural farmers and their role in addressing food security and climate change. He stated that: supporting smallholders requires a commitment to technology; mitigating climate change requires renewable energy development without compromising food security; and including agriculture in conversations on offsets, as the US Congress will do, is critical.

Gilberto Câmara, Director, Brazilian National Institute of Space Research (INPE), said climate change will most affect food security in tropical countries, but that others, including the US, will be affected. He said temperature increases of more than 2°C will devastate agriculture in Brazil. Câmara stressed the importance of data collection and analysis to extract regional scenarios from mega scenarios in order to inform appropriate policy that enables food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Ajay Vashee, Director, International Federation of Agricultural Producers, highlighted the challenges farmers face in doubling food production by 2050, contributing to environmentally friendly food and fuel production, and alleviating poverty. He said bioenergy can diversify risks and increase income while reducing GHG emissions. He stressed the need to include specific mention of food security and agriculture in climate change negotiating texts and to include rewards for farmers’ carbon sequestration activities in accounting rules.

Jacques Diouf, FAO Director-General, lamented that agriculture has been excluded from climate change financing mechanisms even though the agricultural sector can help vulnerable countries respond to the dual challenges of food security and climate change. He highlighted the November 2009 World Summit on Food Security, which underscored the need to proactively address these dual challenges with particular attention to small-scale producers and vulnerable populations.

Participants debated: biochar’s inclusion in the CDM; whether contradictions exist between simultaneously promoting localized food markets and international free trade; and the role of cities in relation to food security.
During the event, Diouf and Câmara signed an FAO—INPE agreement in which they will, inter alia, cooperate in organizing and supporting a technical proposal for a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification system to report GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks under the UNFCCC.

 

   
 
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Jacques Diouf, FAO Director-General, said increased biofuel production can result in growing competition for land and water resources and that an approach that looks across various land-use sectors can help countries to better manage trade-offs and find synergies.

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Tom Vilsack, US Secretary of Agriculture, said the US recognizes that food aid is not the only solution to food security and applauded recognition by the international community that food must be available, accessible and useable.

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Eva Kjer Hansen, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Denmark, highlighted the important role of the agricultural sector for climate change mitigation and adaptation, and for securing future energy needs and food supplies.

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Contacts

Wendy Mann (Coordinator)<wendy.mann@fao.org>

More information


http://www.fao.org
http://www.inpe.br/ingles/index.php



 
   
 
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REDD Monitoring for Effective Implementation
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Presented by Global Witness
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L-R: Kenneth Markowitz, International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement; Jacob Werksman; Kenneth Andrasko, World Bank; Rosalind Reeve, Global Witness; and Peter Holmgren, FAO.
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Jacob Werksman, World Resources Institute, introduced the event saying that it reflects the increased emphasis on environmental and social aspects of REDD and highlights the importance of strong institutions and civil society empowerment.

Rosalind Reeve, Global Witness, provided an overview of a report entitled “Building Confidence in REDD.” She voiced concern with the low levels of forest governance in many countries that will host REDD projects, and set out a proposal to establish minimum standards for independent monitoring that include: an agreement between the monitor and the host country; access to information; right of movement and access to field sites for monitoring missions; a right to publish findings; and a right to observe host governments’ meetings with other stakeholders.

Kenneth Andrasko, World Bank, listed a number of insights that have emerged about forest governance from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, including the requirements that countries undertake an integrated, cross-sectoral vision of how REDD fits into a low-carbon future, and an analysis of deforestation and degradation drivers.

Peter Holmgren, FAO, discussed the role of national forest inventories as a tool for determining the specific relationships between forest trends and other social and institutional factors.

Kenneth Markowitz, International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE), stressed the foundational role of compliance and enforcement in the rule of law, good governance and sustainable development.

Participants discussed: the role of indigenous peoples in the development of REDD projects and in monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV); Australian and Tanzanian approaches to forest stewardship; and independent forest monitoring of country MRV standards.

   
 
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Kenneth Andrasko, World Bank, stated that the evaluation of REDD Readiness requires transparent and fair review using internationally agreed standards. 

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Rosalind Reeve, Global Witness, described independent forest monitoring as the indispensable condition of transparency in REDD.

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Peter Holmgren, FAO, highlighted that while the UNFCCC prioritizes carbon, the Convention on Biological Diversity focuses on biodiversity and the FAO supports genetic resources for food and agriculture, and that for communities, these issues are inextricably linked.

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More information

http://www.globalwitness.org
http://www.wri.org

http://www.carbonfinance.org
http://www.fao.org
http://www.inece.org
 

Contacts

Jacob Weksman (Chair)<jwerksman@wri.org>
Rosalind Reeve<roz.reeve@globalwitness.org>
Kenneth Andrasko<kandrasko@worldbank.org>
Peter Holmgren<peter.holmgren@fao.org>
Kenneth Markowitz<kmarkowitz@akingmp.com>

   
 
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ONE UN: Partnering with Countries to Build Capacity and Readiness for Dealing with Climate Change
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Presented by UNDP, UNEP and UNITAR
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L-R: Zaheer Fakir, South Africa; Luis Gomez-Echeverri, IIASA; Cuong Pham Manh, Viet Nam; Olav Kjorven, UNDP; and Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP.
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This event discussed various cross-UN agency capacity-building activities.

Olav Kjorven, UNDP, stressed that capacity building is at least as important as finance but receives much less attention. He highlighed that the vast majority of countries have limited capacity to address the challenges posed by climate change. Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP, agreed that capacity building is as important as finance and said she is increasingly comforted that this is being addressed in collaboration across the UN agencies. She highlighted various UN experiences that have begun to make progress in this regard, including the “UN CC:Learn” initiative.

Luis Gomez-Echeverri, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), stressed that if capacity building is not given a central role in the UNFCCC, many developing countries will be bypassed. He emphasized that the UN must work in a coordinated manner, and that capacity-building assistance must be included in existing development strategies, cannot be undertaken in isolation, and must occur at institutional, systemic and individual levels.

Cuong Pham Manh, Viet Nam, discussed his country’s experience with capacity building in the context of REDD, highlighting that the UN-REDD Programme was officially launched in Viet Nam in August 2009. He summarized various capacity-building activities being organized in Viet Nam in cooperation with FAO, UNDP and UNEP.

Zaheer Fakir, South Africa, discussed his country’s proactive approach to capacity building, stressing that capacity building must be coordinated, coherent, integrated into existing development agendas and demand-driven. He highlighted the utility of institutional-level capacity building.

Participants discussed capacity building as it relates to, inter alia: indigenous knowledge; local and city levels; projected adaptation outcomes from COP 15; and the World Bank’s “Development Marketplace.”

   
 
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Luis Gomez-Echeverri, IIASA, stressed the need to make large investments in capacity building in developing countries.

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Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP, underscored that capacity building cannot be approached in a one-size fits all manner and stressed the need for cooperation between different actors.

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Olav Kjorven, UNDP, highlighted the main points from the event, including that: investment for capacity building is critical; the UN has made progress but more remains to be done; and there is a need to bring together expertise across areas of mandated work.

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More information

http://www.undp.org
http://www.unep.fr

http://www.globalenergyassessment.org
http://www.dof.mard.gov.vn
http://www.deat.gov.za



Contacts

Kaveh Zahedi (Coordinator)<kaveh.zahedi@unep.org>
Olav Kjorven (Chair)<olav.kjorven@undp.org>
Sylvie Lemmet<sylvie.lemmet@unep.org>
Luis Gomez-Echeverri<gomez@iiasa.ac.at>
Manh Cuong Pham<cuong.pham.rs@gmail.com>
Zaheer Fakir<zfakir@deat.gov.za>



   
 
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Low Carbon Asia: Visions and Actions
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Presented by Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan Center for Climate Change Actions (JCCCA)
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Front row L-R: Charmine Koda, IGES; Hironori Hamanaka, IGES; Shuzo Nishioka, IGES; P.R. Shukla, IIM, India; Hiroshi Ohki, JCCCA; and Koichi Hasegawa, Tokohu University
Back row L-R: Eric Zusman, IGES; Kazuhisa Koakutsu, IGES; Mikiko Kainuma, NIES; and Junichi Fujino, NIES.

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Charmine Koda, IGES, noted that Asia is home to many of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Hironori Hamanaka, IGES, said sustainable low-carbon development will require an unprecedented transformation of energy systems, social structures and lifestyles.

Mikiko Kainuma, NIES, presented examples of low-carbon scenarios from Japanese prefectures. P.R. Shukla, Indian Institute of Management, challenged participants to consider solutions beyond the “climate-centric” ones being discussed at the COP 15 negotiations. Kejun Jiang, Energy Research Institute, China, emphasized the potential for technological solutions, and encouraged global cooperation in making these accessible. Junichi Fujino, IGES, detailed actions to achieve a low-carbon energy future.

On opportunities and challenges in Asia, Eric Zusman, IGES, outlined key messages from IGES stakeholder consultations in Asia on a future climate change regime, including the importance of local-level models and considering distributional impacts. Describing IGES’ CDM project database, Kazuhisa Koakutsu, IGES, noted that 85% of registered CDM projects in 2009 were from Asia. Hiroshi Ohki, JCCCA, encouraged sustainable business practices, renewable energy development and technology transfer.

Koichi Hasegawa, Tokohu University, described the “Isson Ippin, One Village, One Action, Campaign,” a national competition for local climate change actions in Japan. He encouraged competitions that would promote joy, confidence and pride in local actions. Shuzo Nishioka, IGES, outlined the Low Carbon Societies Research Network (LCS-RNet), explaining that it is a network of climate change researchers and institutes that provides scientific information to policy makers.

Participants discussed, inter alia: the possibility of achieving a carbon-free society; technological versus market-driven solutions; and energy demand in growing economies.

   
 
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Hiroshi Ohki, JCCCA, presented on activities of the Global Environmental Action and JCCCA.

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Mikiko Kainuma, NIES, argued that it is possible to both improve living standards and keep emissions low.

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Hironori Hamanaka, IGES, commented that this is an exciting time to work on climate change and development in Asia because stakeholders are driving “innovative thinking” on how to pursue a low-carbon path.

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Contacts

Eric Zusman (Coordinator)<zusman@iges.or.jp>
Mikiko Kainuma <mikiko@nies.go.jp>

More information


http://www.iges.or.jp/en/index.html
http://lcs-rnet.org/index.html




   
   
 
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Making REDD Work
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Presented by Conservation International (CI) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
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L-R: Fred Boltz, CI; Andreas Dahl-Jørgensen, Norway; Félix Magallón, Panama; Dicky Simorangkir, TNC; Angel Parra, CI; and Greg Fishbein, TNC.

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This event discussed implementation of REDD and REDD+. Fred Boltz, CI, introduced the panel, stressing that when implemented properly, REDD+ can contribute to sustainable economic growth and provide an incentive to sustain livelihoods.

Greg Fishbein, TNC, noted that there are many actors working on REDD and that the event would describe their various roles in REDD readiness.

Angel Parra, CI, outlined key lessons learned from CI’s experience with REDD+, including the need to: secure appropriate partners and expertise; ensure scientifically robust technical work; and ensure stakeholder engagement at all levels.

Félix Magallón, Panama, shared his country’s experiences with implementing REDD activities, highlighting that 50% of total emissions come from deforestation. Noting that REDD is part of Panama’s National Environmental Strategy, he highlighted complementary work being done by indigenous groups.

Outlining that Indonesia has the second highest rate of deforestation globally, Dicky Simorangkir, TNC, shared lessons learned about REDD implementation from experience with a demonstration project in Berau, Indonesia. He explained that the project has the potential to reduce carbon emissions through avoided degradation, forest conversion and forest enhancement activities.

Andreas Dahl-Jørgensen, Norway, reported the results of the Informal Working Group (WG) on Interim Finance for REDD+, highlighting the critical role of REDD+ incentive payments and of allowing countries to move at different speeds. He concluded by describing two performance-based REDD+ partnerships in Brazil and Guyana.

Participants discussed, inter alia: on-the-ground activities in Indonesia; financial transfers; and whether a global willingness-to-pay can make a difference to those living on the forest frontier.

   
 
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Andreas Dahl-Jørgensen, Norway, said REDD potential cannot be realized without transfers from developed to developing countries, and stressed that early action is critical to achieve adequate emission reductions from forestry by 2020.

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Dicky Simorangkir, TNC, stressed that it is very important to engage communities in REDD+ demonstration projects.

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Angel Parra, CI, stressed the importance of allocating sufficient resources for capacity building and active government participation in the implementation of REDD+.

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More information

http://www.nature.org/climatechange
http://www.conservation.org
http://www.regjeringen.no/md



Contacts
Rane Cortez (Coordinator)<rcortez@tnc.org>

Fred Boltz (Co-Chair)<fboltz@conservation.org>
Greg Fishbein (Co-Chair)<gfishbein@tnc.org>

   
 
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Post-2012 Flexible Mechanisms
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Presented by Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS)
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L-R: Benoît Leguet, Caisses des Dépôts; Nick Campbell, Business Europe; Simone Mori, Enel; Steven Gray, Climate Change Capital; Rob Bradley, World Resources Institute; and Bo Kjellén, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). (Noriko Fujiwara seated behind).

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Noriko Fujiwara, CEPS, presented the report of the CEPS Task Force entitled “The Clean Development Mechanism and Beyond.” She stated that new mechanisms should be judged according to their environmental integrity, the way they enhance public and private investments, and institutional strengths.

Benoît Leguet, Caisses des Dépôts, suggested that baseline setting should remain under the competence of the host country and be simplified.

Simone Mori, Enel, argued that there is a need for new flexible mechanisms that draw on the CDM's proven performance, are simple, remain pragmatic and preserve environmental integrity. Nick Campbell, Business Europe, stated that flexible mechanisms are a fundamental part of the negotiations and are integral to targets, timetables and technical deployment. He underscored the need for simplicity in the design of flexible markets, as otherwise many businesses will lack the expertise to engage with them.

Steven Gray, Climate Change Capital, explained that carbon markets impose a cost on carbon, and therefore create incentives to explore diverse mitigation options. He stressed that policy makers must balance supply and demand when developing markets and seek to ensure that credits are fungible between regional trading systems.

Rob Bradley, World Resources Institute, explained that the Waxman-Markey bill envisages the establishment of additional US-developed market mechanisms. In this context, he continued, the environmental additionality of the credits generated under these new schemes and the level of discounting become important.

Participants discussed: funding for renewable energy; the supply and demand for credits; mechanisms for incentives; the links between political will and the price of carbon; and the relationship between policy and the market.

   
 
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Benoît Leguet, Caisses des Dépôts, stated that joint implementation should be made more attractive to non-Annex I countries to encourage them to take on legally-binding emission reductions and to engage in the mechanisms.

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Noriko Fujiwara, CEPS, set out options for future mechanisms that include the CDM, joint implementation, sectoral crediting, and sectoral trading.

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Steven Gray, Climate Change Capital, stated that common MRV standards are the “backbone” of the carbon market, which is driven by an ambitious cap.

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More information

http://www.ceps.eu/

Contacts


Bo Kjellen (Chair)<bo.kjellen@sei.se>
Noriko Fujiwara <noriko.fujiwara@ceps.eu>

   
 
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Climate Change and Development - Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability (CC-DARE) in Sub-Saharan Africa
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Presented by Senegal
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L-R: Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP; Geert Andersen, Denmark; Abdoulaye Sene, Senegal; Babacar Diouf, Senegal; Veerle Vandeweerd, UNDP; and Bubu Pateh Jallow, UNEP.

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This session focused on country experiences and adaptation strategies under the CC-DARE Programme. Abdoulaye Sene, Senegal, introduced the panel, emphasizing the need for resilience to adapt to climate change. Geert Andersen, Denmark, reminded participants of the effects of climate change, including water shortages, flooding and higher sea levels. He called for increased funding for climate adaptation and announced the Danish government’s commitment of US$240 million over a three-year period to a European Union fund currently under discussion for these purposes.

Bubu Pateh Jallow, UNEP, provided details about the UN CC-DARE programme, highlighting the importance of integrating climate change into other policies and removing barriers to adaptation. He emphasized the need, at the national level, for awareness, capacity building, and appropriate policies and institutions.

Sene moderated the panel on country experiences. Saïd Hounkponou, Initiatives pour un Développement Intégré Durable (IDID), Benin, Babacar Diouf, Senegal, and Annunciata Hazuka, Uganda, emphasized the need to integrate and mainstream climate change adaptation into development programmes and policies. Hounkponou reflected on appropriate mechanisms for coping with climate disasters and funding for local adaptation; Diouf noted the need to share best practices and scale up small pilot projects; and Hazuka highlighted research and awareness, and policy and legislation as two key intervention areas.

During the discussion, participants commended the CC-DARE programme. They posed questions on issues concerning, among other things: the generalizability of country-specific experiences; the role of women in local-level development activities; the focus on climate change-related disasters; project time scales; and the potential to use the CC-DARE funding model for other adaptation funds.

   
 
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Geert Andersen, Denmark, encouraged bridging the gap between development and adaptation, and “strengthening the voices of the poor.”

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Saïd K Houkponou, IDID, Benin, described support for local authorities to integrate adaptation in Local Development Plans.

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Bubu Pateh Jallow, UNEP, highlighted capacity-building activities for mainstreaming climate adaptation, including curriculum development, education and training.

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More information

http://www.ccdare.org

Contacts


Bubu Pateh Jallow (Coordinator)<bubu.jallow@unep.fr>
Abdoulaye Sene (Co-Chair)<seneabdou@hotmail.com>

Sylvie Lemmet (Co-Chair)<sylvie.lemmet@unep.org>

 


 
 
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Related Links
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Summary of events
Timetable of events
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UN resources
Gateway to the UN System’s Work on Climate Change
Informal Thematic Debate of the UN General Assembly on Climate Change as a Global Challenge

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