A Special Report on Selected Side Events at the
United Nations Climate Change Conference, Bali - 2007

published by IISD in cooperation with UNDP and UNEP

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Events convened on Saturday, 8 December 2007

US global warming emissions reductions - targets and strategies
Presented by the Natural Resources Defense Council
Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), presented on “How to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change,” a UCS report that details targets for US emission reductions consistent with maintaining a 50% probability of staying under a two degree change in average global temperatures. He noted that this would require the US emissions to be reduced 80% below 2000 levels by 2050. Meyer indicated that their predictions assume that emissions will peak in 2010 for industrialized nations, and in 2020-2025 for developing countries, adding that this will require unprecedented de-carbonization rates.

Meyer also described the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act, which was passed by the US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee this week, noting that it is the first economy-wide global warming bill to do so. He added that if the Act is approved by the Senate, it will be submitted to the President just prior to the 2008 election, and thus there may be pressure from Republicans not to veto it. Mayer noted that the climate issue has played a prominent role in the 2008 presidential candidates’ campaigns.

David Doniger, Natural Resources Defense Council, described actions required to meet the objectives contained in the UCS report, noting that 40% of the North Pole’s ice cap has melted since 1979. He reflected on progress achieved since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in gaining support for action, noting that the plight of the polar bear and the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina had been important determinants of public opinion.

Doniger then presented the outcome of a study that evaluated which sectors would be able to deliver the most cost-effective emissions savings, noting that these could be used to offset the cost of more expensive emission reduction efforts. He cautioned against the expansion of nuclear power, and supported the transition away from coal-fired power plants. He underscored that meeting the 2050 objectives would cost US$ three trillion in projected energy infrastructure, in addition to US$ one trillion in investment.

Participants discussed: de-carbonizing development; auctioning of emissions trading permits; linkages between the US domestic and Kyoto systems; and “escape valve” provisions.
L-R: Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists and David Doniger, Natural Resources Defense Council
Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists, highlighted US regional initiatives requiring mandatory emission limitations, and the wide range of support that the climate change issue has gained recently
David Doniger, Natural Resources Defense Council
Contacts
Alden Meyer <ameyer@ucusa.org>
David Doniger <ddoniger@nrdc.org>

UN HABITAT strategy on cities in climate change
Presented by UN HABITAT
Axumite Gebre-Egziabher, UN Human Settlements Programme (UN HABITAT), presented UN HABITAT’s mandate to promote sustainable urban development and adequate shelter for all, and stressed its local-level focus.

Marco Keiner, UN HABITAT, emphasized that cities are the biggest contributors to, and most impacted by, climate change and that they must be involved in the solutions. He outlined UN HABITAT’s strategy on cities in climate change.

Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP, welcomed UN HABITAT’s focus on the resilience of cities. She suggested that significant emission reductions, particularly in buildings, can be achieved with available technology and that, while national regulations are necessary, “true commitment” will come from cities.

Andy Reisinger, IPCC, stressed the need to understand disagreements between climate model predictions when they are used for risk planning. He highlighted the long lifetimes of buildings and urban settlements and cautioned against infrastructural lock-in.

Ambika Chawla, UN HABITAT Youth Representative, encouraged the inclusion and support of youth in addressing climate change in urban areas.

Robert de Jong, UNEP, underlined the importance of addressing resource use in cities and the natural link between UNEP and UN HABITAT in addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas, particularly in developing countries.

Participants discussed local versus national-level responsibilities and resilience versus adaptation. They agreed on the importance of working with secondary cities and recommended focusing on multi-level governance and multi-hazard approaches.
L-R: Marco Keiner, UN HABITAT; Andy Reisinger, IPCC; Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP; Robert de Jong, UNEP; Ambika Chawla, UN HABITAT Youth Representative; and Axumite Gebre-Egziabher, UN HABITAT
Marco Keiner, UN HABITAT, indicated that urban dwellers in developing countries will double between 2000-2030 and that 80% of all greenhouse gas emissions originate from cities
Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP
Axumite Gebre-Egziabher, UN HABITAT
Ambika Chawla, UN HABITAT Youth Representative
Andy Reisinger, IPCC
Ulrike Röhr, Gender Environment Sustainability
David Hollister, UNDP
Contacts
Axumite Gebre-Egziabher <axumiteg@un.org>
Marco Keiner <marco.keiner@unhabitat.org>
Sylvie Lemmet <slemmet@unep.fr>
Andy Reisinger <andy.reisinger@teri.res.in>
Robert de Jong <rob.jong@unep.org>
Ambika Chawla <ambika_tierra@yahoo.com>

Adaptive policymaking in a world of uncertainty
Presented by TERI
Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, warned that delaying adaptation to climate change will increase its impacts, which could lead to human misery, greater social injustice, and damaged ecosystems. He said the challenge is to achieve economic growth and wellbeing of society without jeopardizing environmental integrity or social justice.

Suruchi Bhadwal, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), introduced an International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)/TERI project on adpatative policy making for agriculture and water resources in the face of climate change, carried out with support from the International Development Research Center (IDRC). She called for a paradigm shift in policy making in order to design policies that are able to adapt to both anticipated and unanticipated changes.

Jo-Ellen Parry, IISD, presented a case study on Manitoba’s conservation district policy, which examines the activities of seven of these districts and shows that they are generally adaptive to climate change. She said the policy demonstrates the effectiveness of devolution.

Sanjay Tomar, TERI, discussed a case study from the state of Maharashtra, India, which addresses the need for an integrated and participatory approach to watershed management. He listed adaptive measures, including: crop diversification; insurance; and income and livelihood diversification.

Jabavu Clifford Nikomo, IDRC, stressed the need for institutions to adapt and for a bottom-up participatory approach.

Participants compared lessons learned from the case studies presented.
L-R: Jo-Ellen Parry, IISD; Atiq Rehman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies; Suruchi Bhadwal, The Energy and Resources Institute; and Sanjay Tomar, TERI
Suruchi Bhadwal, The Energy and Resources Institute, noted that the IISD/TERI project has shown that some policies such as self organizations and networks, which encourage interaction and innovation, adapt well to unanticipated conditions
Jo-Ellen Parry, IISD
Atiq Rehman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies
Contacts
Atiq Rahman <atiq.rahman@bcas.net>
Suruchi Bhadwal <suruchibib@teri.res.in>
Jo-Ellen Parry <jparry@iisd.ca>
Sanjay Tomar <sanjayt@teri.res.in>
Jabavu Clifford Nikomo <jnkomo@idrc.or.ke>

Sustainable growth through energy efficiency
Presented by REEEP
Morgan Brazilian, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), underscored the importance of energy efficiency for all aspects of climate change.

Debashish Majumdar, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited, provided an overview of energy consumption and the potential for renewables in India. He noted that the Energy Efficiency Act was passed in 2001 and that with energy efficient technologies, many businesses could cut their energy consumption by up to 20%.

Shen Longhai, China Energy Conservation Service Industry Association, indicated that the Chinese government attaches great importance to energy conservation. He outlined present policies aimed at energy saving in the building sector and said the Energy Conservation Law will come to effect in 2008.

Franzjosef Schafhausen, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany, said his country is decoupling economic growth and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by increasing energy efficiency and promoting renewables. He highlighted the Integrated Energy and Climate Programme aimed at achieving a 40% reduction in GHGs by 2020.

Paul Waide, International Energy Agency, stressed that energy efficiency is “the biggest fuel and the cleanest,” and noted the release of the World Energy Outlook 2007-China and India Insights.

Participants discussed the potential barrier created by intellectual property rights to the transfer of clean technologies and the portfolio of energy efficiency CDM projects in India and China.
L-R: Paul Waide, International Energy Agency; Franzjosef Schafhausen, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany; Morgan Brazilian, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership; Debashish Majumdar, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency; and Shen Longhai, Energy Services Company Association of China
Morgan Brazilian, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership
Shen Longhai, Energy Services Company Association of China
Franzjosef Schafhausen, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany
Debashish Majumdar, Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited, identified climate change mitigation and energy security as the main drivers of energy efficient technology
Paul Waide, International Energy Agency
 
Contacts
Morgan Brazilian <morgan.brazilian@dcenr.gov.ie>
Debashish Majumdar <cmd@ireda.in>
Shen Longhai <slh@emca.cn>
Franzjosef Schafhausen <franzjosef.schafhausen@bmu.bund.de>
Paul Waide <paul.waide@iea.org>

REDD preparedness: a sourcebook for high quality and cost effective estimation
Presented by Winrock International
Martin Herold, Friedrich-Schiller-University, introduced the draft “Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamic Sourcebook” on transparent methods to produce carbon emission estimates for REDD. Panelists presented on the Sourcebook’s content.

Ruth DeFries, University of Maryland College Park, discussed methods for measuring deforested area, stressing the importance of mid-resolution data and context-specific choice of methods.

Danilo Mollicone, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, outlined methods for measuring degraded area. He said a direct approach will be best in the future but that an indirect one can be used to establish historical references.

Sandra Brown, Winrock International, described how the report addresses estimating carbon stocks, and elaborated on: choosing the appropriate IPCC tier; stratifying by carbon stock; and estimating carbon stocks of forests undergoing change.

Giacomo Grassi, European Commission, presented on how to provide practical, credible and verifiable REDD estimates when starting from uncertain data, emphasizing that when accuracy and precision cannot be achieved, conservative estimates of emissions reduced should be used.

Carlos Rodríguez, Conservation International, stressed that funding REDD will not reverse deforestation. He argued that policy makers are instigators of deforestation and that appropriate institutions, policies, and decision makers are needed to address this issue.

Kenneth Andrasko, World Bank, emphasized the need to standardize measures for REDD in order for it to be included in the UNFCCC’s decisions. He said the sourcebook is a first step towards achieving this goal.
Frédéric Achard, European Commission
Kenneth Andrasko, World Bank
Carlos Rodríguez, Conservation International
Danilo Mollicone, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Giacomo Grassi, European Commission
Fiona Ryan, The Wilderness Society Inc.
Sandra Brown, Winrock International, explained that the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamic Sourcebook aims to synthesize and complement information available in the IPCC guidelines in an user-friendly format
Contacts
Frédéric Achard <frederic.achard@jrc.ec.europa.eu>
Martin Herold <m.h@uni-jena.de>
Ruth DeFries <rdefries@mail.umd.edu>
Danilo Mollicone <dmolli@bgc-jena.mpg.de>
Sandra Brown <sbrown@winrock.org>
Giacomo Grassi <giacomo.grassi@jrc.it>
Carlos Rodríguez <cm.rodriguez@conservation.org>
Kenneth Andrakso <kandrasko@worldbank.org>

Making REDD work for the poor
Presented by the Poverty and Environment Partnership
David McCauley, Asian Development Bank, provided an overview of the Poverty and Environment Partnership (PEP) coalition, noting its role in examining the interface between environmental management and poverty reduction. He emphasized that REDD must have the full support of local communities in order to be credible and sustainable.

Joshua Bishop, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, presented on links between poverty and REDD, and discussed direct versus indirect drivers of deforestation. He described a range of activities supportive of REDD, such as payment for ecosystem services, and drew attention to barriers that must be overcome, such as weak land tenure, elite capture and corruption.

Michael Dutschke, Biocarbon.net, discussed the need for principles and criteria for a REDD mechanism, stressing environmental and equity considerations. He proposed that REDD mimic Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol with regards to consideration of afforestation and reforestation, as well as forest management activities. He called for integrating implementation activities at the national, state, and project levels. Dutschke discussed possible financial mechanisms, noting that the US$10 billion per year required to reduce deforestation by 50% is equivalent to the global annual expenditure on cell phone ringtones.

Leo Peskett, Overseas Development Institute, discussed what is meant by “pro-poor” REDD, emphasizing the complexity of the forest-poverty relationship. He discussed experiences from regulatory, fund and market-based approaches, noting that tenure reform is inadequate in the face of weak governance. He discussed ways of reducing risks associated with non-permanence and leakage. Peskett said stringent contracts, in addition to well-defined environmental and social standards could help alleviate these risks.

Charles McNeill, UNDP, led a panel discussion on lessons learned from other sectors that could assist in ensuring that REDD is “pro-poor”, including: Lera Miles, UNEP-WCMC; Marcus Colchester, Forest Peoples Programme; Eric Bettleheim, Sustainble Forestry Management; Benoît Bosquet, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility-World Bank; Peter Minang, ICRAF; Jan Borner, CIAT; Ian Kosasih, WWF Indonesia; and Maria Beriekom, SwedBio.

Participants underlined the need to: recognize land rights; embed safeguards within REDD to avert elite capture; and learn from the CDM. They also discussed: gender equity; how to define poverty; national sovereignty; and the costs and benefits of forest certification.
L-R: David McCauley, Asia Development Bank; Joshua Bishop, IUCN-The World Conservation Union; Michael Dutschke, Biocarbon.net; and Leo Peskett, Overseas Development Institute
Charles McNeill, UNDP
Leo Peskett, Overseas Development Institute
Lera Miles, UNEP-WCMC, said that diligence will be required at all levels to ensure that socioeconomic and biodiversity considerations are upheld during the early implementation of REDD
David McCauley, Asia Development Bank
Michael Dutschke, Biocarbon.net, discussed possible ways to finance REDD, including a voluntary fund replenished by developed countries, or alternative sources such as an aviation tax
Joshua Bishop, IUCN
 
Participants during the discussion session
Contacts
David McCauley <dmccauley@adb.org>
Joshua Bishop <joshua.bishop@iucn.org>
Michael Dutschke <michael@biocarbon.net>
Leo Peskett <l.peskett@odi.org.uk>
Charles McNeill <charles.mcneill@undp.org>

APFED Policy Dialogue on Climate Change
At the occasion of UNFCCC/COP13 in Bali, Indonesia
Presented by IGES
APFED, an Asia – Pacific regional group of eminent experts, organized the APFED Policy Dialogue on Climate Change was convened at Swiss Grand Bali from 11 a.m. until 3:30 p.m on 8 December 2007. It was aimed at promoting multi-stakeholder dialogue on major issues in climate change policies such as the Kyoto Protocol implementation and the development of the post 2012 climate change policy regime.  

Prof. Hironori Hamanaka, Chair of the Board of Directors, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - IGES, Japan briefly underscored in his opening remarks, the vital role Asia needs to play in forging climate change policy processes taking into account its rapidly growing GHG emissions, stagnant poverty and vulnerability.

Mr. Hiroshi Ohki, Chairman, GEA International Conference 2007 and Chairman, Japan Center for Climate Change Action and President of the UNFCCC/COP3 emphasized the urgent need to intensify actions on climate change and the importance of developing a globally participated post 2012 climate change policy regime.

Mr. Raúl Estrada-Oyuela, former Ambassador of Argentina and Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (COW) of the COP3 broadly reviewed the Kyoto Protocol development and implementation processes and noted a number of cautions and future perspectives such as the constraints of the current CDM and emission trading in terms of reducing the overall GHG emissions at the national and global scale, and the expected potentials of cap and trade policies.

Mr. Michael Zummit Cutajar, former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) emphasized the importance of intervening policy measures that will reshape market and investment for reducing GHG emissions and presented his analysis on pros and cons of key issues such as 2 centigrade target, cap & trade and the length of commitment period. 

Dr. Emil Salim, former Minister of Environment, Indonesia, and Special Envoy of the President, Indonesia and APFED Member presented political dynamisms in climate change policy processes. Dr. Cielito Habito, former Secretary of Socioeconomic Planning and former Director-General of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), and Professor and Director, Ateneo Center for Economic Research and Development, Philippines and APFED Member highlighted the mechanisms of economic instruments for tackling climate change. Dr. Kim Myung-Ja, former Minister of Environment, and Member of Parliament, Republic of Korea and APFED Member explained a variety of policy measures that the Republic of Korea promotes such as carbon trading and RPS.

Prof. Shuzo Nishoka, Senior Research Advisor, IGES Japan emphasized the impacts of climate change on people’s livelihood and the importance of prompting policies and measures to achieve a low carbon society. Dr. Kejun Jiang, Director, Research Management and International Collaboration Division, Energy Research Institute, People’s Republic of China presented the China’s policies for setting domestic GHG caps and promoting energy efficiency. Dr. Jonathan Pershing, Director, Climate, Energy and Pollution Program, World Resource Institute underscored the importance of reorienting market and investment for improving energy efficiency and promoting research, development, deployment and diffusion of environmentally sound technology.

Mr. Parvez Hassan, former Chairman of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Law Commission and APFED Member highlighted the importance of stakeholder empowerment for tackling climate change through rural support programme, micro-credit, enhanced media’s role and education for sustainable development. Prof. Akio Morishima, Special Research Advisor, IGES, Japan and APFED Member emphasized the work that APFED has been supporting to address climate change issues through APFED Showcase Programme – a grass root small grant programme, and APFED Ryutaro Hashimoto Award. Dr Suruchi Bhadwal, Fellow and Area Convenor, TERI, India underpinned the multiple policy requirements such as poverty reduction and adaptation in conjunction with climate change, and highlighted the recent policy and institutional development in India to address climate change issues more comprehensively.

The audience interacted with speakers to clarify and exchange views on the issues that were raised in the presentations and discussions.
L-R:Hiroshi Ohki, Chairman, GEA International Conference 2007 and Chairman, Japan Center for Climate Change Action and President of the UNFCCC COP 3; Raúl Estrada-Oyuela, former Ambassador of Argentina and Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (COW) of the COP 3; Michael Zammit Cutajar, former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and Hironori Hamanaka, Chair of the Board of Directors, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
Raúl Estrada-Oyuela, former Ambassador of Argentina and Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (COW) of the COP 3
Hiroshi Ohki, Chairman, GEA International Conference 2007 and Chairman, Japan Center for Climate Change Action and President of the UNFCCC COP 3
Hironori Hamanaka, Chair of the Board of Directors, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
Masanori Kobayashi, IGES
Participants during the side event
L-R: Dr. Emil Salim, former Minister of Environment, Indonesia, and Special Envoy of the President, Indonesia and APFED Member; Dr. Cielito Habito, former Secretary of Socioeconomic Planning and former Director-General of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), and Professor and Director, Ateneo Center for Economic Research and Development, Philippines and APFED Member; Dr. Kim Myung-Ja, former Minister of Environment, and Member of Parliament, Republic of Korea and APFED Member; and Prof. Akio Morishima, Special Research Advisor, IGES and APFED Member.
L-R: Dr. Jonathan Pershing, Director, Climate, Energy and Pollution Program, World Resource Institute; Dr. Kejun Jiang, Director, Research Management and International Collaboration Division, Energy Research Institute, People’s Republic of China; Prof. Shuzo Nishoka, Senior Research Advisor, IGES; and Dr. Emil Salim (appearing in the previous photograph).
Mr. Parvez Hassan, former Chairman of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Law Commission and APFED Member.
Dr Suruchi Bhadwal, Fellow and Area Convenor, TERI, India

UNEP:  Launch of REN21 Renewables 2007 Global Status Report

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The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This issue has been written by Alice Bisiaux, Suzanne Carter, Alexandra Conliffe and Peter Wood. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Soledad Aguilar <soledad@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali is provided by UNDP and UNEP. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be found on the Linkages website at <http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop13/enbots/>. The ENBOTS Team at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be contacted by e-mail at <alice@iisd.org>.
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