A Special Report on Selected Side Events at the
United Nations Climate Change Conference, Bali - 2007

published by IISD in cooperation with UNDP and UNEP

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Events convened on Thursday, 6 December 2007

Up in Smoke? Asia and the Pacific report launch by the UK Working Group on Climate and Development
Organized by Tearfund

Andy Atkins, Tearfund, described the process of developing the fourth edition of “Up in Smoke? Asia and the Pacific,” which describes climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in the region, noting the unique cooperation between environment and development organizations.

Jessica Bercilla, Christian Aid, described a range of unprecedented and extreme weather events, such as typhoons, that have recently occurred in the Philippines, and early warning systems developed to minimize their impacts.

Raman Mehta, ActionAid, discussed adaptation strategies that have been implemented in India, such as the adoption of water harvesting technologies. He noted India’s wealth disparity and the potential for carbon intensity reduction without compromising development goals.

Ursula Rakova, Carteret Atoll, Papua New Guinea, stated that rising waters threaten the existence and basic human rights of many Pacific Islanders. She highlighted the plight of her people on an island near Bougainville who are facing displacement.

John Lanchbery, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, described the rapid deforestation of Sumatra, noting that the half million hectares remaining is designated as production forests. He indicated that his organization had bought the logging rights to 100,000 hectares, but stressed that such conservation efforts would fail without the support of local people.

Ari Margiono, Oxfam, illustrated the impacts of climate change with the story of a woman in East Timor, whose children are facing malnutrition due to decreased harvests caused by changes in weather patterns.

Charles Ehrhart, CARE, reported that Tajikistan is experiencing increased precipitation and snowpack due to climate change, and noted the impact on food security. He said this has led the men of the villages to find work elsewhere, making women especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

Mohammad Ali, Practical Action Bangladesh, described the impacts of climate change on Bangladesh, noting that a one meter sea level rise would affect 40% of the country’s land surface and 40 million people.

Sanjeev Bhanja, Evangelical Fellowship of India Commission on Relief, said adaptation efforts had been able to reduce the impacts of recent floods.

Participants discussed the expected magnitude of climate-related displacement and risks and opportunities associated with adaptation via livelihood diversification.

L-R: Saleemul Huq, IIED; Andy Atkins, Tearfund; Ursula Rakova, Carteret Atoll; Jessica Bercilla, Christian Aid; Raman Melita, AtionAid; and Sanjeev Bhanja, EFICOR
Ursula Rakova, Carteret Atoll, Papua New Guinea, stressed that the debate over climate change should include human rights as well as science
Saleemul Huq, IIED
Andy Atkins, Tearfund
Raman Melita, AtionAid
Sanjeev Bhanja, EFICOR
Participants during the side event

Contacts
Andy Atkins <andyatkins@tearfund.org>
Jessica Bercilla <jessicabercilla@gmail.com>
Raman Mehta <raman.mehta@actionaid.org>
Ursula Rakova <ursular@online.net.pg>
John Lanchbery <john.lanchbery@rspb.org.uk>
Ari Margiono <amargiono@oxfam.org.uk>
Charles Ehrhart <ehrhart@careclimatechange.org>
Mohammad Ali <ali@practicalaction.org>
Sanjeev Bhanja <eficornq@vjnl.com>


Energy efficiency and carbon finance: leveraging the largest mitigation opportunity
Presented by UNIDO

Paul Waide, International Energy Agency, underscored that energy efficiency offers the cheapest large-scale carbon emissions abatement, but that current resource allocations are too small to deliver this potential.

Klaus Oppermann, KfW, provided an overview of possible carbon-based energy efficiency programmes that could center on, inter alia: grants; loans; or policy implementation schemes.

Sudhir Sharma, UNFCCC, listed approved methodologies available for energy efficiency projects under the CDM or Joint Implementation.

Zhihong Zhang, Global Environment Facility (GEF), presented on the GEF’s experience in energy efficiency financing and noted the increasing share of funding for energy efficiency-related projects.

Binu Parthan, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, noted that energy efficiency represents 5% of the voluntary market and highlighted its scope for growth. He stated that corporate reporting is the major driver for that market.

Robert Williams, UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), stressed the importance of looking at energy efficiency in the industrial sector to capture improvement opportunities.

Marina Ploutakhina, UNIDO, listed the barriers to energy efficiency projects under the CDM, including the lack of replicable methodologies and the need to demonstrate additionality.

Martina Bosi, World Bank, indicated that an Expert Group on Energy Efficiency and Carbon Finance has recently been created within the Bank and said it would first focus on the building sector.

Participants discussed appropriate methodologies and incentives for energy efficiency projects.

L-R: Sudhir Sharma, UNFCCC; Binu Parthan, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership; Martina Bosi, World Bank; Marina Ploutakhina, UNIDO; Zhihong Zhang, GEF; Paul Waide, International Energy Agency; Klaus Oppermann, KfW; and Robert Williams, UNIDO
Klaus Oppermann, KfW
Paul Waide, International Energy Agency
Zhihong Zhang, GEF
Martina Bosi, World Bank
Marina Ploutakhina, UNIDO, noted the crucial role energy efficiency can play for climate change mitigation

Contacts
Paul Waide <paul.waide@iea.org>
Klaus Oppermann <Klaus.oppermann@kfw.de>
Sudhir Sharma <ssharma@unfccc.int>
Zhihong Zhang <zzhang2@thegef.org>
Binu Parthan <bp@reeep.org>
Robert Williams <r.williams@unido.org>
Marina Ploutakhina <M.Ploutakhina@unido.org>
Martina Bosi <mbosi@worldbank.org>


Private Sector Participation in REDD
Presented by the Global Public Policy Institute

Charlotte Streck, Climate Focus, addressed legal aspects of carbon trading in forestry. She cautioned that the number of variables associated with REDD make it legally problematic, and that governments need to set a strong framework to build the private sector’s confidence.

Jeffrey Horowitz, Avoided Deforestation Partners (ADP), described ADP’s objectives, and emphasized that efforts will not succeed unless indigenous and local people are respected.

Johannes Ebeling, EcoSecurities, discussed creating a business case for REDD, emphasizing that this will require reducing risks such as regulatory uncertainty. He discussed national versus project-level crediting, and urged taking a hybrid approach. He cautioned that some of the countries with the highest potential for REDD are politically unstable.

Bernhard Schlamadinger, TerraCarbon, explored the issue of permanence, and proposed some solutions to potential pitfalls of REDD.

Marisa Meizlish, New Forests, presented on the ability of REDD to compete with alternative land uses, based on case studies in the Amazon, Congo and Papua. She concluded that REDD can compete well against other land uses except for palm oil, which appears much more profitable in the scenarios modeled.

Robert O’Sullivan, Climate Focus, discussed policy options for REDD. He cautioned against a national crediting approach, adding that this may limit local communities’ participation.

Participants discussed protecting livelihoods while implementing REDD and the costs of enforcement.

L-R: Richard Saines, Baker & McKenzie; Charlotte Streck, Climate Focus; Jeffrey Horowitz, Avoided Deforestation Partners; Johannes Ebeling, EcoSecurities; Marisa Meizlish, New Forests; and Robert O’Sullivan, Climate Focus
Charlotte Streck, Climate Focus, urged learning from small-scale implementation of REDD before undertaking this at the global level
Jeffrey Horowitz, Avoided Deforestation Partners
Marisa Meizlish, New Forests

Contacts
Charlotte Streck <c.streck@climatefocus.com>
Jeffrey Horowitz <jeff@adpartners.org>
Johannes Ebeling <johannes.ebeling@ecosecurities.com>
Bernhard Schlamadinger <bernhard.schlamadinger@terracarbon.com>
Marisa Meizlish <mmeizlish@newforests.com.au>
Robert O’Sullivan <r.osullivan@climatefocus.com>


Women in the forest – no fairy tale
Presented by Life e.V.

Isolde Alber, Artist, shared the story of Amrita Devi and Bishnoi martyrs, who, in 1730, sacrificed their lives to protect forests in Jodhpur, India.

Racheal Nampinga, Ecowatch Africa, described how women’s initiatives have helped protect forests and generate diversified income sources through: the introduction of indigenous species and nurseries; ecotourism promotion; reduced fuel use for cooking; and fish farming.

Ana Filippini, World Rainforest Movement, explained how the introduction of monocultural forests has led to the eviction of indigenous peoples from their land worldwide, and how women in Brazil are protesting to recover their land from private companies.

Anna Pinto, Centre for Organisation Research and Education, argued that “we have the development paradigm backwards” and that instead of enlarging options, we are reducing them to suit market needs. She outlined how some CDM projects are negatively impacting women and forests.

Simone Lovera, Global Forest Coalition, cautioned against proposals to reduce emissions from deforestation (REDD) in developing countries. She noted that women are the losers of market systems as they least contribute to deforestation but do not reap the benefits of averting it and lack marketing and language skills.

Gotelind Alber, Genanet, stressed that women’s participation is essential to forest conservation and that market-based approaches are harmful.

Participants discussed land ownership rights and the need to broaden the scope of views acknowledged in the climate negotiations to encompass women’s knowledge and contexts.

L-R: Simone Lovera, Global Forest Coalition; Ana Filippini, World Rainforest Movement; Gotelind Alber, Genanet; Racheal Nampinga, Ecowatch Africa; and Anna Pinto, Centre for Organisation Research & Education
Gotelind Alber, Genanet
Anna Pinto, Centre for Organisation Research and Education, stressed the need to recognize that women and men experience deforestation differently and that co-existence with forests is not equivalent to forest management
Ana Filippini, World Rainforest Movement
Simone Lovera, Global Forest Coalition
Mike Wiggens, Tearfund
Racheal Nampinga, Ecowatch Africa

Contacts
Ulrike Röhr <roehr@genanet.de>
Isolde Alber <isolde.alber@web.de>
Nampinga Racheal <nrachelk@yahoo.com>
Ana Filippini <anafili@wrm.org.uy>
Simone Lovera <simonelovera@yahoo.com>
Gotelind Alber <goalber@online.de>
Anna Pinto <anarchive.anon@gmail.com>


US Action: carbon markets and policy
Presented by the BCSE

Lisa Jacobson, Business Council for Sustainable Energy (BCSE), emphasized that parties in Bali should agree to launch a new negotiating round on a post-2012 framework and conclude these negotiations by 2009.

Irving Mintzer, MEG LLC, described US state and regional initiatives to address climate change, stressing that US states are looking to the Bali process to sustain momentum in mitigating climate change and investing in clean technologies.

Angela Beehler, Wal-Mart, highlighted Wal-Mart’s long-term aspiration to be entirely supplied by renewable energy.

Lisa Beal, Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA), explained that INGAA’s modeling of likely impacts of federal climate-related proposals shows that offsets will be critical to their non-disruptive implementation.

David Schnaars, Solar Turbines, argued that increasing energy efficiency is a natural and powerful first step to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and can be implemented using available technologies.

Kenneth Mentzer, North American Insulation Manufacturers Association, stressed the need for awareness raising and financial incentives to overcome resistance to energy efficiency, particularly in the building sector.

Aimee Barnes, EcoSecurities, and Anna Lehmann, 3C Group, highlighted concerns regarding quality and standards in the US voluntary carbon market, which could impact the inclusion of offsets in a future compliance market.

Participants discussed Wal-mart’s responsibility to influence consumer behavior and linking voluntary and compliance carbon markets.

L-R: David Schnaars, Solar Turbines; Lisa Beal, Interstate Natural Gas Association of America; Kenneth Mentzer, North American Insulation Manufacturers Association; and Lisa Jacobson, Business Council for Sustainable Energy
Irving Mintzer, MEG LLC
Lisa Beal, Interstate Natural Gas Association of America
David Schnaars, Solar Turbines
Angela Beehler, Wal-Mart, announced that the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works passed the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act on 5 December 2007

Contacts
Lisa Jacobson <ljacobson@bcse.org>
Irving Mintzer <irvingm@attglobal.net>
Angela Beehler <angie.beehler@wal-mart.com>
Lisa Beal <lbeal@ingaa.org>
David Schnaars <dave.schnaars@solarturbines.com>
Kenneth Mentzer <kmentzer@naima.org>
Aimee Barnes <aimee.barnes@ecosecurities.com>
Anna Lehmann <anna.lehmann@3c-company.com>


Biodiversity – climate interactions: adaptation, mitigation and human livelihoods
Presented by the Royal Society

Peter Collins, Royal Society, introduced a report on an international meeting held at the Royal Society in June 2007: “Biodiversity – climate interactions: adaptation, mitigation and human livelihoods.”

Richard Betts, Met Office Hadley Centre, UK, highlighted biodiversity’s importance in the uptake of carbon by ecosystems, which he called a “free ecosystem service” and outlined some of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity.

Antonio Nobre, Amazon Research Institute, showed that the Amazon’s high rainfall is seeded by natural emissions of particulates from the forest’s biodiversity. He explained how the water vapor produced in the Amazon irrigates the heartland of South American agriculture and urged “not to shoot ourselves in the foot” with biofuel production.

Daniel Murdiyarso, Centre for International Forestry Research, highlighted the challenges for REDD negotiations, including: appropriate baselines; monitoring; equity among stakeholders; and political commitments.

Jamie Webb, Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat, welcomed further synergies between the CBD and UNFCCC, including through: joint communication; training of National Focal Points; and enhanced coordination between Subsidiary Bodies.

Amy Sullivan, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK, stressed the need to identify “win-win” synergies and develop transparent decision-making frameworks.

Participants discussed: identifying critical temperature thresholds for key species losses; links between land degradation and reduced deforestation; and renewable energy project effects on biodiversity.

L-R: Amy Sullivan, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK; Peter Collins, Royal Society; Richard Betts, Met Office Hadley Centre, UK; Antonio Nobre, Amazon Research Institute; Daniel Murdiyarso, Centre for International Forestry Research; and Jamie Webb, CBD secretariat
Jamie Webb, CBD Secretariat, highlighted the need to mainstream vulnerability and adaptation in policy
Richard Betts, Met Office Hadley Centre, UK
Antonio Nobre, Amazon Research Institute
Daniel Murdiyarso, Centre for International Forestry Research
Peter Collins, Royal Society
Amy Sullivan, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK
Kalipada Chatterjee, Winrock International India
Raphaël Hanmbock, African Network for a Climate Community
Participants during the side event

Contacts
Peter Collins <peter.collins@royalsociety.org>
Richard Betts <Richard.betts@metoffice.gov.uk>
Antonio Nobre <anobre@ltid.inpe.br>
Daniel Murdiyarso <d.murdiyarso@cgiar.org>
Jamie Webb <Jamie.webb@cbd.int>
Amy Sullivan <amy.sullivan@defra.gsi.gov.uk>


Adapting to climate change in Africa: towards regional solutions
Presented by the IDRC

Fatima Denton, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), advocated regional adaptation projects, which have multiple benefits, including: mobilizing, sharing and maximizing resources; generating climate leadership; and increasing knowledge sharing.

Al-Hamndou Dorsouma, Sahara and Sahel Observatory, said climate change and development linkages need to be widely acknowledged and acted upon and stressed their links to desertification adaptation. He introduced the “Great Green Wall” initiative, which aims to stimulate information sharing and increase fundraising potential for adaptation.

Sekou Toure, GEF, stressed the need for institutional capacity strengthening, particularly in water management issues. He stated that the risk of water stress and scarcity is projected to increase and that sea level rise will cause groundwater salinization in many large coastal cities. He added that the transboundary nature of most of Africa’s water resources is a limitation to current institutional arrangements, and highlighted the need for regional cooperation on adaptation.

Josué Dioné, UN Economic Commission for Africa, addressed regional approaches to food security, highlighting the under-capitalization and poor performance of the agricultural sector, and the reliance on imports for 25% of the food stuffs in Africa. He called for more effective use of water resources.

Participants discussed: aquifer storage and recharge possibilities; New Partnership for Africa’s Development climate action plan; and barriers to regional cooperation.

L-R: Sekou Toure, Global Environment Facility; Josué Dioné, UN Economic Commission for Africa; moderator Youba Sokona, Sahara and Sahel Observatory; Fatima Denton, International Development Research Centre; and Al-Hamndou Dorsouma, OSS.
Fatima Denton, International Development Research Centre, outlined the “Climate Change and Adaptation in Africa” project’s approach to build capacity

Contacts
Fatima Denton <fdenton@idrc.org.sn>
Al-Hamndou Dorsouma <dorsouma.alhamandou@oss.org.tn>
Sekou Toure <stoure1@thegef.org>
Josué Dioné <jdione@uneca.org>


UNEP press briefing “Green Jobs-climate change also presents opportunities for new industries and employment”
L-R: Peter Poschen, International Labour Organization; Robert Bisset, UN Environment Programme; Janos Pasztor, UN Environment Management Group; and Lucien Royer, International Trade Union Confederation

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The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This issue has been written by Alice Bisiaux, Suzanne Carter, Alexandra Conliffe and Peter Wood. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Soledad Aguilar <soledad@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali is provided by UNDP and UNEP. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be found on the Linkages website at <http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop13/enbots/>. The ENBOTS Team at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be contacted by e-mail at <alice@iisd.org>.
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