A Special Report on Selected Side Events at the
United Nations Climate Change Conference, Bali - 2007

published by IISD in cooperation with UNDP and UNEP

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Events convened on Wednesday, 12 December 2007

Building on Pocantico: towards an integrated multi-track framework
Presented by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change

Elliot Diringer, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, explained that the meetings of the Climate Dialogue at Pocantico, which were held in 2004 and 2005, brought together a group of policy makers and stakeholders from 15 countries for a series of discussions on post-2012 options. He outlined key messages from these meetings, namely the need for all major economies to engage in the future climate regime, and a more flexible framework that allows for a wider range of commitments. He introduced the Pew Center paper “Towards an integrated multi-track climate framework.”

Daniel Bodansky, University of Georgia, indicated that the paper elaborates on the rationale for an integrated multi-track approach. He explained that in contrast with the Kyoto Protocol, which establishes a single commitment type, namely fixed economy-wide emission targets, the multi-track framework would have a variegated structure allowing countries to assume different types of commitments and integrate these commitment “tracks” in a common structure. He emphasized that the multi-track framework should be flexible in order to broaden participation and stressed the importance of integration.

Shaun Vorster, South Africa, said the political conditions for agreeing on an all-encompassing regime may not be in place, as developing countries are waiting for a clear “trigger” from the North. He called for deeper emission cuts from Annex I parties and comparable efforts from the US. He stressed the importance of political will and trust, and called for establishing an institutional space for negotiations and agreeing on an end date.

Karsten Sach, Federal Ministry of Environment, Germany, underlined that climate change poses a unique type of challenge and that “time is of the essence” in tackling this issue. He said Kyoto protocol-type of commitments should be at the center of the post-2012 regime and that the ability of States to choose between various mandates within a multi-track framework should be limited.

Joanna Lewis, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, presented on-going modeling work which aims to visualize a range of concrete policy packages with alternative forms for a multi-track climate framework. She stressed that all the scenarios examined fall within the realm of political feasibility.

Participants discussed: setting sectoral targets; trading across different target types; the current political context in the US; and the definition of political will.

L-R: Shaun Vorster, South Africa; Elliot Diringer, Pew Center; Joanna Lewis, Pew Center; Daniel Bodansky, University of Georgia; and Karsten Sach, Federal Ministry of Environment, Germany
Shaun Vorster, South Africa
Daniel Bodansky, University of Georgia, underlined that the challenge for the future post-2012 regime will be to strike the right balance between flexibility and integration, and noted that the urgency of addressing climate change requires a significant level of integration from the start
Karsten Sach, Federal Ministry of Environment, Germany

Contacts
Elliot Diringer <diringere@pewclimate.org>
Daniel Bodansky <bodansky@uga.edu>
Karsten Sach <karsten.sach@bmu.bund.de>
Shaun Vorster <svorster@deat.gov.za>
Joanna Lewis <lewisj@pewclimate.org>


Analysis to support a solid economic basis for post-2012 action
Presented by the OECD

Angel Gurría, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), provided an overview of results from an OECD study on different emission reduction strategies.

Kristin Halvorsen, Minister of Finance, Norway, said her country is supporting an ambitious climate agreement even though its economy is largely petroleum-based, noting the overriding importance of long term sustainability over short term profits.

Preston Chiaro, Rio Tinto, highlighted Rio Tinto’s carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects in the pipeline, and called on governments to set a framework and remove barriers to action.

Jørgen Elmeskov, OECD, highlighted a study challenging the assumption that the costs of emission cuts are identical across countries and sectors, which finds that: emission taxes are not always viable; tradeable emission schemes have great potential; regulations and standards can complement trading but have technology lock-in risks; and renewables are costly.

David Parker, Minister for Climate Change and Energy, New Zealand, introduced a multi-gas and sectoral emissions trading scheme for his country.

Bert Koenders, Minister of Development Cooperation, the Netherlands, stressed the need for incentives and investment and to mainstream adaptation into development efforts.

Juan Elvira Quesada, Minister of Environment, Mexico, gave examples of national policies and strategies to mainstream climate change.

Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, said tackling climate change is her city’s overriding imperative and noted its responsibility to “test-drive” being a low carbon city.

L-R: Preston Chiaro, Rio Tinto; Angel Gurría, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; and Kristin Halvorsen, Minister of Finance, Norway
L-R: Bert Koenders, Minister of Development Cooperation, the Netherlands; Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London; Angel Gurría, OECD; David Parker, Minister for climate change and energy, New Zealand; and Jørgen Elmeskov, OECD
Angel Gurría, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, suggested that an emissions trading scheme would be the best mechanism for equitable burden sharing
Preston Chiaro, Rio Tinto
Kristin Halvorsen, Minister of Finance, Norway
Jørgen Elmeskov, OECD
Participants during the side event

Contacts
Angel Gurria <secretary.general@oecd.org>
Kristin Halvorsen <kristin.halvorsen@fin.dep.no>
Preston Chiaro <preston.chiaro@riotinto.com>
Jørgen Elmeskov <jorgen.elmeskov@oecd.org>


Cornerstones of a future climate regime from a scientific perspective
Presented by Germany

Sigmar Gabriel, Minister for the Environment, Germany, outlined his country’s integrated energy and climate programme, which aims to reduce emissions by 40% by 2020. He explained that the target will be reached through a range of measures focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency standards.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, presented the Potsdam memorandum from a symposium of Nobel laureates on how to “reinvent industrial metabolism.” He outlined some of the ideas put forward by the laureates, including: solar cell ink; synthetic microbes to perform ecological services; and new transport and infrastructure possibilities.

Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics, stressed that the cost of action is less than the cost of inaction and outlined what measures are needed to meet the climate change challenge. He called for moving from a world average of seven tons of carbon dioxide per capita to two-three tons per capita in 2050, but stressed that historical responsibilities imply deeper cuts should be made by developed countries.

Ricardo Lagos, former President of Chile, called for ambitious Annex I targets and for developing countries to embrace a “menu” approach based on their different capabilities to take on targets as apart of a multi-track process.

Participants discussed: a McKinsey study on 70 German companies on abatement; the lack of new mandates in negotiations; the work of the International Renewable Energy Agency on research and development for new technologies; and CDM reform.

L-R: Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; Sigmar Gabriel, Federal Minister for the Environment, Germany; moderator Steve Howard, The Climate Group; Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics; and Ricardo Lagos, Former President of Chile
Sigmar Gabriel, Minister for the Environment, Germany, said the burden of tackling climate change is really an opportunity, citing 200,000 jobs created in the renewable energy industry in his country
Nicholas Stern, London School of Economics
Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Ricardo Lagos, Former President of Chile

Contacts
Susanne Kadner <kadner@pik-potsdam.de>
Nicholas Stern <n.stern@lse.ac.uk>


Partnerships for energy security, clean development and climate change
Presented by the US

Daniel Reifsnyder, US Department of State, highlighted US bilateral and multilateral initiatives for addressing poverty, fuel security and emission reductions.

Alexander Karsner, US Department of Energy, outlined national and international initiatives on renewables and energy efficiency, stressing that while policy is local, science is global.

William Irving, US Environmental Protection Agency, introduced the Methane to Markets Partnership, in which 21 governments are advancing the recovery and use of methane from coal mines, landfills, oil and gas systems, and agriculture.

William Hohenstein, US Department of Agriculture, described actions to reduce GHG emissions from private and public land activities, noting that carbon sequestration and GHG reductions have become a focus of US conservation programmes in the last five years.

James Connaughton, White House Council on Environmental Quality, discussed actions required for the Major Economies process, initiated by the US, to merge with a potential Bali roadmap. He stressed the need to: measure and monitor emissions; reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers for clean energy goods; and develop concrete mid-term national strategies. He described different emission reductions scenarios that could achieve global emission reductions of 50% by 2050, including: a 100%, 80% or 60% cut by developed countries, accompanied by a 50%, 60% or 80% cut by developing countries, respectively.

Participants discussed the need for the US to better communicate on their current work and challenges in implementing national policies in the decentralized political system of the US.

L-R: William Hohenstein, US Department of Agriculture; Daniel Reifsnyder, US Department of State; Alexander Karsner, US Department of Energy; James Connaughton, White House Council on Environmental Quality; and William Irving, US Environmental Protection Agency
Alexander Karsner, US Department of Energy, noted the US goal to reduce gasoline consumption by 20% by 2017, the role cellulosic ethanol might play, and a US-China agreement to encourage cellulosic ethanol use in China
Daniel Reifsnyder, US Department of State
William Irving, US Environmental Protection Agency

Contacts
Daniel Reifsnyder <reifsnyderda@state.gov>
William Irving <irving.bill@epa.gov>
William Hohenstein <whohenst@oce.usda.gov>


Cutting down deforestation in Brazil
Presented by Brazil

Marina Silva, Minister of Environment, Brazil, emphasized that lessons learned and technology developed to reduce deforestation in Brazil could be applied to other developing countries.

Sigmar Gabriel, Minister of the Environment, Germany, encouraged the funding of REDD, and noted that the certification of biofuels can assure sustainability.

Thelma Krug, Secretary of Climate Change and Environmental Quality, Brazil, highlighted elements of Brazil’s climate change strategy, namely: mitigation; adaptation; research and development; and capacity building.

Tasso Azevedo, Brazilian Forest Service, described a new fund in support of REDD in Brazil, noting that contributors will receive a REDD certificate at the rate of five dollars per ton, based on a conservative estimate of 100 tons per hectare of avoided deforestation.

Erik Solheim, Norwegian Minister of the Environment and Cooperation, called for an immediate start to REDD and said that that no new Kyoto mechanism is needed. He announced US$500 million in new funding per annum for protection and sustainable use of forests, linked to measurable reductions in deforestation.

Achim Steiner, UNEP, described Brazil’s recent efforts as “one of the greatest turnarounds in resource management” and urged international support.

Celso Amorim, Minister of External Relations, Brazil, stressed that poverty can undermine environmental gains, and cautioned that the Amazon forest could become the victim of global warming.

Participants discussed balancing carbon sequestration with other forest values and the need for participation of indigenous peoples.

Achim Steiner, Executive Director, UNEP
L-R: Tasso Azevedo, Brazilian Forest Service; Thelma Krug, Secretary of Climate Change and Environmental Quality, Brazil; Marina Silva, Minister of Environment, Brazil; and Erik Solheim, Norwegian Minister of the Environment and Cooperation
Sigmar Gabriel, Minister of the Environment, Germany
Marina Silva, Minister of Environment, Brazil
Celso Amorim, Minister of External Relations, Brazil
Thelma Krug, Secretary of Climate Change and Environmental Quality, Brazil
Erik Solheim, Norwegian Minister of the Environment and Cooperation Technology, said that Brazil can provide leadership in South-South cooperation on avoiding deforestation
Tasso Azevedo, Brazilian Forest Service
Participants during the discussion session

Contacts
Tasso Azevedo <tasso.azevedo@sfb.gov.br>
Thelma Krug <thelma.krug@mma.gov.br>


Green jobs and skills: drivers for climate transitions
Presented by the International Trade Union Confederation

Peter Poschen, International Labour Organization, provided an overview of the Green Jobs Initiative.

Joël Decaillon, European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), presented on an ETUC study on climate change, and said a carbon energy tax must consider low-income households.

Chabo Ching, International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), highlighted that the diversity within Asia’s growth levels poses unique challenges to labor, and noted that technology transfer must be accompanied by training.

Arturo Gonzalo Aizpiri, Secretary-General of Environment, Spain, underscored the key role that labor unions have to play in de-carbonizing the economy.

Hilary Benn, Minister of Environment, UK, underlined that future economic prosperity can only come about by a green economic revolution supported by trade unions.

Brice Lalonde, Climate Ambassador, France, called for taxing environmentally-damaging goods and “shaming” excessive consumption.

Kirsty Hamilton, UK Business Council for Sustainable Energy, outlined the employment needs of the new “green” economy and stressed that a strong international agreement on climate change is needed to provide investment certainty.

Nick Nuttall, UNEP, noted that there will be growth in employment linked to natural resources management and renewable energy.

Neth Dano, Third World Network, stressed that trade unions need to be involved in climate change discussions at both the national and international levels.

Carl Pope, Sierra Club, emphasized that the new economy will be shaped first by policy decisions and not market forces, and called for trade unions to support renewable energy.

L-R: Peter Poschen, International Labour Organisation; Philip Pearson, Trades Union Congress, UK; Chabo Ching, ITUC-Asia Pacific; and Joël Decaillon, European Trade Union Confederation
Arturo Gonzalo Aizpiri, Secretary-General for Pollution Prevention and Climate Change, Spain, stressed that renewable energy presents a huge opportunity for green employment and that efficiency is competitive
Peter Poschen, International Labour Organisation
Joël Decaillon, European Trade Union Confederation

Contacts
Joël Decaillon <etuc@etuc.org>
Chabo Ching <ching@icftu-apro.org>
Nick Nuttall <nick.nuttall@unep.org>
Neth Dano <nethdano@pacific.net>
Carl Pope <carl.pope@sierraclub.org>


ICLEI – Local governments and climate action
Presented by ICLEI

Michelle Wyman, Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), said ICLEI provides technical consulting and training to over 1000 local governments worldwide who are striving for deep carbon emission reductions.

Prema Naidoo, Councilor of Johannesburg, South Africa, described short, medium and long-term tools for incorporating GHG emission reductions into city planning in Johannesburg. He highlighted activities to achieve this goal, including development of a rapid transport system for buses and integration of stakeholder consultations.

Rocky Anderson, Mayor of Salt Lake City, US, described initiatives that helped Salt Lake City reduce municipal GHG emissions by 31% from 2001 levels, representing 148% of their Kyoto Protocol goal. He highlighted the implementation of, inter alia: energy efficient lighting in traffic lights and city hall; free parking for low-polluting cars; methane recovery and cogeneration; and renewable energies.

Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, UK, outlined the city’s goal to reduce emissions by 60% by 2025. She described the city’s emission reductions activities, stressing that most activities, including a congestion charge in the city center, have been learned and adapted from smaller cities. Gavron introduced the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, which facilitates exchanges between cities.

Paul Lussier, Zero Impact, introduced Zero Impact, a software tool that will enable citizens worldwide to comprehensively measure their carbon footprint and compete with other citizens and groups to achieve the greatest emissions reductions. He said the tool will be launched alongside a global reality television show.

Participants discussed city adaptation strategies.

L-R: Paul Lussier, Zero Impact; Prema Naidoo, Councillor, Johannesburg, South Africa; Rocky Anderson, Mayor, Salt Lake City, Utah, US; Michelle Wyman, Local Governments for Sustainability; and Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor, London, UK
Prema Naidoo, Councillor, Johannesburg, South Africa
Michelle Wyman, Local Governments for Sustainability
Paul Lussier, Zero Impact;
Nicky Gavron, Deputy Mayor of London, UK, stressed that city mayors and local leaders must be at the forefront of practical action, but that they need to be empowered by national governments and are looking for a comprehensive plan from Bali to support their actions
Rocky Anderson, Mayor, Salt Lake City, Utah, US

Contact
Michelle Wyman <michelle.wyman@iclei.org>


UNEP: Carbon Neutrality

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The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This issue has been written by Alice Bisiaux, Suzanne Carter, Alexandra Conliffe and Peter Wood. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Editor is Soledad Aguilar <soledad@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali is provided by UNDP and UNEP. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be found on the Linkages website at <http://www.iisd.ca/climate/cop13/enbots/>. The ENBOTS Team at the United Nations Climate Change Conference - Bali can be contacted by e-mail at <alice@iisd.org>.
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