published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the CBD Secretariat
A Special Report on Selected Side Events at CBD COP-8
20-31 March 2006 | Curitiba, Brazil
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Events convened on Monday, 20 March 2006

Early lessons learnt from the access and benefit sharing management tool

Presented by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

Françoise Salamé, State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO), introduced the Working Draft ABS Management Tool (ABS-MT) developed by the International Institute of Sustainable Development (IISD), Stratos Inc. (Canada), and Jorge Cabrera on behalf of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO). Salamé described the two phases of the ABS-MT Project, with the first one (2003-2004) aimed at developing a working draft and the second one (2004-2006) at testing and revising the draft tool, conducting outreach and stakeholder consultations and assessing the feasibility of broader formal use to support implementation of the CBD Bonn Guidelines.

In describing the ABS-MT objectives, Jorge Cabrera, IISD/SECO consultant, noted the tool was designed to help users and providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge to reach fair and equitable agreements on the terms and conditions under which access and use can take place in a manner that fully respects the CBD. He indicated that the ABS-MT is useful to both providers (government agencies and communities) and users (private sector and research centres) in the negotiation of agreements and their implementation and monitoring through good practices of seven core elements including: prior informed consent (PIC); mutually agreed terms (MAT); benefit-sharing; conservation and sustainable use; traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources; community and indigenous peoples participation; and information and transparency.

Cabrera further described the ABS-MT process framework as comprising the development and implementation of policy statements, identification of relevant practice standards, identification and tracking of genetic resource uses, responsibilities and accountabilities, and financial and human resources.

Speaking on the development of the ABS-MT, François Pythoud, Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), indicated the need to provide further guidance to providers and users of genetic resources by assisting in the development of standards through the assessment of users’ needs. Pythoud, agreed with Salamé and Cabrera, indicating that implementation challenges relate to the difficulty in tracking users willing to be involved in the project and the reluctance from users and providers in using developed standards.

Tomme Young, IUCN Environmental Law Centre, identified capacity building and gaps in communication, which generate lack of understanding between users and providers, as key gray areas relating to the utilization of the ABS-MT. Young highlighted that an intended benefit of using the ABS-MT is to build trust and mutual beneficial relationships between users and providers, while improving communication.

Jorge Cabrera, IISD/SECO consultant, spoke on ABS practice standards including commitment, guidance, documentation and reporting, and implementation challenges, and on the ABS-MT management process framework
Datin Eileen Yen Eee Lee, Sarawak Biodiversity Centre, Malaysia, noting the difficulty expressed by ABS-MT developers in finding suitable cases for testing the tool, suggested using a bioprospecting application in Sarawak
Contacts:
Françoise Salamé <francoise.salame@seco.admin.ch>
Jorge Cabrera <jacmed@racsa.co.cr>
François Pythoud <francois.pythoud@blw.admin.ch>
Tomme Young <tyoung@iucn.org>

Putting Article 10(c) into Practice: Protecting and Encouraging Customary Use of Biological Resources

Presented by the Forest Peoples Programme

Case studies from Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana and Thailand were presented, describing the implementation of CBD Article 10(c), which requires parties to “protect and encourage customary use of biological resources in accordance with traditional practices…”.

Loreen Jubitana, Association of Indigenous Village Leaders in Suriname (VIDS), called for the legal recognition of the traditional ownership, use, and management of lands and natural resources in her country. She noted that this may require the revocation of existing mining and logging concessions and licenses.

Ramón Tomedes, Ye’kwana People of the Venezuelan Amazon, described the use of traditional knowledge in the management of their territory, and attempts to secure legal recognition of this area, noting that government land-use designations have limited indigenous access.

Tony James, Amerindian Peoples Association, and Gavin Winter, Wapichan People, presented a report based on research conducted in 17 indigenous communities, noting threats such as illegal mining, road development and lack of secure tenure over their traditional territories. They cautioned that the New Amerindian Act does not provide sufficient protection.

Ramón Tomedes, Yakwana People of the Venezuelan Amazon, described efforts to secure the legal recognition of their traditional territory, including demarcation, assessment of resources, and the creation of an ecological station used to monitor natural resources and hunting
Udom Chanoenniyomphnai, Inter-Mountain Peoples’ Education and Culture in Thailand Association, described the remaining forest resources in Thailand, noting that these are associated with high densities of tribal peoples, and that modern mapping techniques have been used to improve recognition of traditional knowledge and customary activities. He cited laws and policies in conflict with Article 8(j) and 10(c), and called for support of the Community Forestry Bill proposed by local and indigenous communities.
Contacts:
Loreen Jubitana <vids@sr.net>
Ramón Tomedes <kuyujani@cantv.net>
Tony James <chiefkokoi@yahoo.com>
Gavin Winter <ghavyn@gmail.com>
Udom Chanoenniyomphnai <impect@loxinfo.co.th>

Demonstrating Progress in Implementing the Programme Of Work On Protected Areas And Management Effectiveness Through National Implementation Plan Strategy Agreements

Presented by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

Chair, Tarsicio Granizo, TNC, outlined actions in country-level implementation of National Implementation Plan Strategy Agreements (NIPS), ranging from 8 joint venture partnerships in Bolivia to 25 in Brazil.

Outlining the Brazilian government's initiatives on protected area (PA) management, Maurício Mercadante, Ministry of Environment, Brazil, referred to a new strategy to combat deforestation based on new models of forestry not farming and highlighted the importance of PAs for the sustainable development of the Amazon. He urged discussion on the recently released document outlining Brazil's PA actions.

Rocío Esquival Solís, National Commission for Protected Areas, Mexico, shared progress on PA management in Mexico, which had started with a detailed eco-regional analysis and gap analysis for PAs, noting the importance of expert agreement on a Mexican eco-region map in mapping PAs. Solís said the megadiverse nature of Mexico highlighted the need to use a mosaic of instruments to achieve optimal biodiversity.

Maurício Mercadante, Ministry of Environment, Brazil stressed Protected Areas are not just being created for conservation but also for broader sustainable development plans

Cesar Augusto Rey, National Park Unit, Colombia, emphasized the creation of a coordinated national PA action plan in Colombia to link assessment of different ecosystems.

Jose Courrau, TNC, presented the preliminary results of the Global Analysis on Protected Area Management Effectiveness being carried out by the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), TNC, the University of Queensland and WWF, explaining that its main goal is to evaluate the main indicators being used and which are most useful.

Discussion: Participants discussed options for funding PA management programmes.

Contacts:
Tarsicio Granizo <tgranizo@tnc.org>
Maurício Mercadante <mauricio.mercadante@mma.gov.br>
Rocío Esquivel Solís <resquive@conanp.gob.mx>
Cesar Augusto Rey <carey@parquesnacionales.gov.co>
Jose Courrau can be contacted via Fiona Leverinton <fiona.leverington@uq.edu.ac>

Aboriginal Languages and Cultures in Canada

Presented by the Government of Canada

Elizabeth Casuga, Canadian Heritage, said that language is being considered as a possible proxy indicator to measure traditional knowledge. She explained that Canada was the first country in the world to adopt multiculturalism as an official policy, and that Canada has about 1 million people identified as either First Nations, Inuit or Métis, representing about 3% of the population. She noted that over 50% of aboriginal peoples live in urban areas and that one third are less than 14 years old.

Casuga said that aboriginal peoples have a unique relationship with the Government of Canada, and that aboriginal rights are enshrined in the Canadian Constitution, but noted that consistent with global trends, aboriginal languages are under threat. She emphasized the strong correlation between cultural continuity and language revitalization. She discussed a task force report that confirmed that most of the 50 aboriginal languages in Canada were under threat. She said that implementing the report’s recommendations will require a comprehensive and national strategy, and suggested that aboriginal languages are the most effective vehicle for transmitting indigenous knowledge.

Elizabeth Casuga, Canadian Heritage, said that the celebration and awareness of indigenous knowledge was a celebration of aboriginal culture and unique point of view
She emphasized that the government alone cannot revitalize languages and that they must be spoken and taught by aboriginal people. She noted that Canadian Heritage, through the Aboriginal Languages Initiative, has supported community-based efforts to revitalize languages and cultures.
More information:
http://pch.gc.ca/
Contact:
Elizabeth Casuga <elizabeth_casuga@pch.gc.ca>

Monitoring the 2010 Target (SEBI 2010) – The European contribution to CBD Implementation

Presented by the European Commission

Gordon McInnes, European Environment Agency (EEA), described Streamlining European 2010 Biodiversity Indicators (SEBI 2010), a pan-European initiative aimed at streamlining development and applicability of indicators to track progress in achieving the CBD 2010 Target. McInnes, focusing on agricultural ecosystems, presented 16 EU headline biodiversity indicators applied to the CBD Focal Areas, highlighting indicators on sustainable use such as growth in organic farming across Europe.

Ivonne Higuero, UNEP- Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (PEBLDS), noted that UNEP is working to ensure the participation of non-EU countries in the SEBI 2010 process, including expert groups and capacity building workshops.

Andrew Stott, Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), United Kingdom (UK), presented indicators being used in parallel to the SEBI 2010 in the UK, methods and data sources, and cross-connections among EU and UK indicators. Stott highlighted that the UK has added public participation to the current CBD Focal Areas and noted that the UK 2010 indicators will be published by the end of 2006.

Ivonne Higuero, UNEP-PEBLDS, noted that the exchange of expertise provided by governments on a voluntary basis is essential to overcome funding scarcity and to assist countries at different stages of indicator implementation
Recalling that the 2010 target has been agreed at the EU and Pan-European levels, Jeremy Harrison, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), noted that a set of regional headline indicators (based on CBD global indicators in Decision VII/30 and SBSTTA Recommendation X/5) has been developed. Harrison highlighted the newly funded Global Environment Facility (GEF) project on the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, a global initiative for tracking progress towards the 2010 target in collaboration with the CBD Secretariat, UNEP-WCMC, the UK and the European Commission.
Contacts:
Anne Teller <anne.teller@cec.eu.int>
Gordon McInnes <gordon.mcinnes@eea.eu.int>
Ivonne Higuero <ivonne.higuero@unep.ch>
Andrew Stott <andrew.stott@defra.gsi.gov.uk>
Jeremy Harrison <jeremy.harrison@unep-wcmc.org>

Biological Diversity and Nutrition

Presented by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, the Government of Brazil, and FAO

Emile A. Frison, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), explained how the consumption of simplified foods instead of more nutritious traditional and indigenous foods is becoming a major health issue. He emphasized strengthening the links between dietary diversity and health outcomes. He cited the example of millet in India, which grows well in mountainous regions and has been diversified into snack products and breakfast cereals. He noted that in Kenya, traditional African leafy vegetables have been reintroduced through retail outlets and public awareness campaigns. He stressed boosting pride in the consumption of local and indigenous foods, and underscored increasing their consumption to avoid health problems, suggesting they can have greater health implications than the impact of communicative diseases.

Paulo Kageyama, Ministry of Environment, Brazil, stated that his country has been instrumental in leading the CBD to create a programme on agricultural diversity. He highlighted Brazil’s efforts to combat hunger, including the Zero Hunger Strategy developed by the federal government to ensure access to adequate food as a basic human right.

Elsa Alcocer Vargas, Agro-industry and Nutrition, Bolivia, noted that the nutritional value of the Bolivian diet has decreased, as meat is not affordable, and protein-rich grains such as quinoa and canahus are being sidelined in preference for carbohydrates. She outlined the collaboration between the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) which is leading to the reintroduction of these grains diversification of diet.

David Cooper, CBD Secretariat, highlighted links between biodiversity and human well-being, adding that it enhances dietary diversity, a concept that the general public can relate to, therefore facilitating constituency building.

Linda Collette, FAO, presented how FAO’s work contributes to the proposed initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition, highlighting the role of food composition data and the nutritional contribution of food diversity in rural diets and linkages to Millennium Development Goals 1 and 7. She illustrated that without such data, nutrient-poor varieties could end up being promoted.

Emile Frison, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), highlighted how diverse diets deliver good health, more productive lives and greater well-being
Paulo Kageyama, Ministry of Environment, Brazil, emphasized the role of biodiversity components in achieving food security
Contacts:
Emile A. Frison <e.frison@cgiar.org>
Paulo Kageyama <paulo.kageyama@mma.gov.br>
Elsa Alcocer Vargas <e.alcocer@proinpalp.org>
David Cooper <david.cooper@biodiv.org>

Transboundary Protected Areas and the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas, and the Launch of the 2006 World Database on Protected Areas

Presented by the World Conservation Union (IUCN)

David Sheppard, IUCN, noted increased recognition of the importance of transboundary protected areas (TBPAs), saying the number of TBPAs has doubled in the past 10 years. He emphasized, inter alia, TBPAs potential as a conflict resolution tool between neighboring countries. He described an innovative project in Peru called the Tambopata-Inambari project commenced in 2002 by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGCS), working with IUCN and a range of implementing agencies. Sheppard highlighted the project’s conservation and development activities.

Federico Cinquepalmi, Ministry of Environment, Italy, described the Transfrontier Marine PA project for Cetacean Conservation in the Mediterranean which establishes an agreement between France, Italy and Monaco governing the Pelagos Sanctuary for Marine Mammals. He noted a key issue for the initiative is that 52% of the sanctuary is within international waters reflecting the unicity of TBPAs.

Charles Besançon, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), gave a brief overview of the WCMC’s networking activities, toolkits and guidance on PAs, noting in particular its work on developing a typology of conservation practice. He spoke of WCMC’s publications and announced the imminent launch of ‘Transboundary Conservation: a new vision for protected areas’ in a side event on Thursday, 24 March.

Outlining the improvements made since 2005 to the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), Silvio Olivieri, IUCN, launched the new and improved WDPA emphasizing progress but urging improvements such as decentralization of data input to ensure the WDPA’s financial and organizational sustainability.

Discussion: Participants discussed tools to analyze TBPA effectiveness and, following the launch of the WDPA, debated, inter alia: inclusion of private and cultural PAs within the WDPA; establishment of national and regional networks to aid decentralization initiatives; and development of PA effectiveness indicators as a precursor to a mechanism for PA certification.

Charles Besançon urged a top-down bottom-up approach to protected area management, saying that where there is a will there is a way
Silvio Olivieri, IUCN, announced the launch of a new and improved World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA)
Contacts:
David Sheppard <das@iucn.org>
Federico Cinquepalmi <cinquepalmi.federico@minambiente.it>
Charles Besançon <charles.besancon@unep-wcmc.org>
Silvio Olivieri <silvio.olivieri@iucn.org>

ABS Dialogue: A search for innovation on trust and partnerships

Presented by United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) on Saturday, 18 March 2006

Valerie Norman, CBD Secretariat, said the meeting provided a unique opportunity for actors involved in ABS to share their expectations and concerns, and contribute to a greater mutual understanding of their different perspectives.

IIma Baros, President of Infinity International Ltd., and Bauback Yeganeh, consultant, introduced the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) methodology. They explained that AI consists of affirming past and present strengths, successes and potentials. They suggested people have "more confidence to journey to the future when they carry forward the best parts of the past." The objectives of the meeting included: helping to scope and prioritize issues associated with trust building and partnership development as a contribution to the advancement of ABS processes; taking responsibility as a community for the development and improvement of long-lasting reliable relationships that can contribute to achieving the objectives of the CBD; generating greater understanding of the various perspectives of stakeholders concerned with ABS processes; facilitating and generating dialogue where stakeholders can forge new alliances and strengthen existing ones to improve ABS processes.

Participants undertook various tasks, including storytelling, to highlight ABS accomplishments in order to visualize a desired future. They also took part in an AI “dream sequence”, which involved creating a representational image of the groups’ future expectations in relation to ABS outcomes. Strategies for action were elaborated which, if implemented, would move towards the desired future. Participants suggested, inter alia: enhancing capacity for engagement; creating an international regime for ABS and creating incentives at the grassroots level for the control of genetic resources.

Contact:
Sueli Giorgetta <sueli.giorgetta@unitar.org>
ENB on the Side (ENBOTS) © <enb@iisd.org> is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This issue has been written by Asheline Appleton, Leonie Gordon, Renata Rubian, and Peter Wood. The photographer is Anders Gonçalves da Silva. The Digital Editor is Diego Noguera. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for the publication of ENBOTS at CBD COP-8 is provided by the United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office through the British Embassy - Global Opportunities Fund, and the Italian Ministry of Environment. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from CBD COP-8 can be found on the Linkages website at http://www.iisd.ca/biodiv/cop8/enbots/. The ENBOTS Team at CBD COP-8 can be contacted by e-mail at <peterw@iisd.org>.

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