13.7. Building the capacity and self-reliance of countries to undertake concerted national action to promote sustained economic growth, to further sustainable national development and to improve the quality of life for the people is a fundamental goal. This requires the retention, motivation and participation of appropriately trained personnel working within effective institutional arrangements, as well as relevant involvement by the private sector and non- governmental organizations. The lack of adequate management skills, particularly in the least developed countries, critically reduces the ability for strategic planning, weakens programme execution, lessens the quality of services and thus diminishes the usefulness of programmes to their beneficiaries. The recent trend towards decentralization of authority in national population and development programmes, particularly in government programmes, significantly increases the requirement for trained staff to meet new or expanded responsibilities at the lower administrative levels. It also modifies the "skill mix" required in central institutions, with policy analysis, evaluation and strategic planning having higher priority than previously.