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Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Second Joint Meeting of the Animals and Plants Committees

Shepherdstown, West Virginia, USA, 7-9 December 2000

Daily multimedia coverage (photos and RealAudio):

 | Thursday, 07 Dec | Saturday, 09 Dec |

On Friday, delegates met in Plenary to continue discussion of criteria for listing in Appendices I and II. Delegates completed discussion of recommendations for the operative part of Resolution 9.24  (ACPC.1.6) and heard presentations by Doug Butterworth from the University of Cape Town and Pamela Mace from the US National Marine Fisheries Service on conceptual frameworks for criteria.

Click here for ENB's coverage of: Tenth Meeting of the Plants Committee and Sixteenth Meeting of the Animals Committee



On the biological criteria for listing in Appendix I, delegates agreed to delete a reference to the observed, inferred or projected decline in the number of individuals of a small wild population. 
Delegates debated, inter alia, whether to include a reference to “mature” individuals of a small wild population, the importance of individuals in various life history phases and observed, inferred or projected decrease in reproductive potential. Hank Jenkins introduced the Criteria Working Group’s proposed changes to the biological criteria for listing species in Appendix I, including, inter alia, changing the order in which the four criterion are presented, and qualifying individuals as ‘mature’ and decline as ‘marked.’
Delegates initiated discussion of the criteria for inclusion of species in Appendix II in accordance with Article II, paragraph 2(a) of CITES.

Delegates reviewing documents prior to the afternoon Plenary

Participants to the Second Joint meeting stand outside the reception hall at NCTC

Doug Butterworth


Doug Butterworth, University of Cape Town, made a presentation on dynamics of renewable species populations and applicability to Appendix listing. He outlined references used in commercial fisheries analysis to study species dynamics, including the optimal utilization theory and explained the link between biological over exploitation and maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in ensuring sustainable harvest. He suggested species faced with the threat of extinction or “depensation” (reduction of population due to low annual growth rate not necessarily linked to human exploitation) could qualify for Appendix I listing whereas species not faced with depensation but below MSY levels could qualify for Appendix II listing. He said species eligible for sustainable harvest should be monitored and listed in Appendix II if their population decreased. Listen to the RealAudio

Willem Wijnstekers with John Field, Biologist with the USFWS Scientific Authority


Image of the overhead display used by Pamela Mace



On encouraging parties to factor in quantitative analyses when proposing species for listing, Kevern Cochrane, FAO supported the use of the best scientific information based on available data (both quantitative and qualitative)

Jabatan Perhutanan, Forestry Department Peninsula, Malaysia (left), in discussion with fellow delegate, N.P. Singh, Botanical Survey of India

Harald Martens, Germany, challenged the applicability of Butterworth’s conceptual model to species other than fish



Pamela Mace

Pamela Mace, US National Marine Fisheries Service, linked listing criteria and the viability of marine species. She highlighted that the conceptual framework could be applicable to other species. She spoke of repercussions of commercial exploitation on marine and other organisms and their capacity to rebound and recolonize and noted irreversible habitat changes are less prevalent in the marine environment. She said the extent of decline of a population should be the ultimate criterion for Appendix listing but demonstrated situations where the rate of decline may be indicative of listing necessity, including where the species� decline is still occurring.

She also addressed: application of different criteria for different life histories or taxonomic groupings; combining productivity, historical extent of decline and recent rate of decline; and usefulness of numeric guidelines.

Regarding definitions and guidelines for listing, she called for: placing more emphasis on the extent of decline; relating minimum population numbers to life histories or taxonomic groupings; varying numeric guidelines for decline criteria with productivity; and using generation time to index productivity. Listen to the RealAudio.




Commenting on Pamela Mace�s presentation on the criteria and viability of marine species, Patricia D�vila, Mexico, noted the absence of readily available historical information, particularly for plant species, and said qualitative data must be defined and used in a viable framework.


     Patricia D�vila

Ronald Orenstein

Regarding the four biological criteria for listing in Appendix I, debate arose over language qualifying individuals as �mature�. Ronald Orenstein, IWC, questioned the use of the term mature, using the example of the Philippine Cockatoo, which has many mature individuals but low recruitment.

Referring to the IUCN formal definition, Alison Rossner, IUCN, said �mature individuals� are those known or inferred to be able to reproduce

Alison Rosser

Marinus Hoogmoed, the Netherlands, Chair of the Animals Committee (left), Rod Hay, Oceania representative for the Animals Committee in the CWG (center) and Greg Leach, Oceania representative for the Plants Committee in the CWG.

Picture opposite >>

John Donaldson

Regarding biological criteria for Appendix I listing, John Donaldson, Africa representative for the Plants Committee in the CWG, supported rephrasing the reference to mature individuals concentrated in one sub-population. He suggested alternative language that highlights the number of individuals critical to different life history phases and to the continuance of the species.

Chidziya Edson, Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management, Zimbabwe with Juma Kayera, Wildlife Division, CITES Management Authority, Ministry of National Resources and Tourism, Tanzania and Jaques Berney, World Conservation Trust (IWMC)

Violette Lacloche, ENB, and Doug Butterworth in conversation



Displays showcasing local culture and ecology and national conservationists

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Second Joint Meeting of the Animals and Plants Committees, homepage.
General Information from the CITES website.
ENB's coverage of CITES COP-11
Agenda of the Plants Committee.
Agenda of the Animals Committee.
CITES homepage.

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