Actions to be taken
239. By Governments:
(a) Support women's education, training and employment to [ensure women's greater access] [promote women's equal] access to all areas and levels of the media;
(b) Support research into all aspects of women and the media so as to define areas needing attention and action and review existing media policies with a view to integrating a gender perspective;
(c) Promote women's [full and] equal participation in the media, including management, programming, education, training and research;
(d) Aim at gender balance in the appointment of women and men to all advisory, management, regulatory or monitoring bodies, including those connected to the private and State or public media;
(e) Encourage, to the extent consistent with freedom of expression, these bodies to increase the number of programmes for and by women to see to it that women's needs and concerns are properly addressed;
(f) Encourage and recognize women's media networks, including electronic networks and other new technologies of communication, as a means for the dissemination of information and the exchange of views, including at the international level, and support women's groups active in all media work and systems of communications to that end;
(g) Encourage and provide the means or incentives for the creative use of programmes in the national media for the dissemination of information on various cultural forms of indigenous people and the development of social and educational issues in this regard within the framework of national law;
(h) Guarantee the freedom of the media and its subsequent protection within the framework of national law [and encourage the positive involvement of the media in development and social issues].
240. By national and international media systems:
Develop, consistent with freedom of expression, regulatory mechanisms, including voluntary ones, that promote balanced and diverse portrayals of women by the media and international communication systems and that promote increased participation by women and men in production and decision-making.
241. By Governments, as appropriate, or national machinery for the advancement of women:
(a) Encourage the development of educational and training programmes for women, to produce information for the mass media, including funding of experimental efforts, and the use of the new technologies of communication, cybernetics space and satellite, whether public or private;
(b) Encourage the use of communication systems, including new technologies, as a means of strengthening women's participation in democratic processes;
(c) Facilitate the compilation of a directory of women media experts;
(d) Encourage the participation of women in the development of [professional guidelines and codes of conduct] [appropriate regulatory mechanisms] to promote balanced and [non-stereotyped] portrayals of women by the media.
242. By non-governmental organizations and media professional associations:
(a) Encourage the establishment of media watch groups that can monitor the media and consult with the media to ensure that women's needs and concerns are properly reflected;
(b) [Consider training] Train women to make greater use of information technology for communication and the media, including at the international level;
(c) Create networks among and develop information programmes for non-governmental organizations, women's organizations and professional media organizations in order to recognize the specific needs of women in the media, and facilitate the increased participation of women in communication, in particular at the international level, in support of South-South and North-South dialogue among and between these organizations, inter alia, to promote the human rights of women and equality between women and men;
(d) Encourage the media industry and education and media training institutions to develop, in appropriate languages, traditional, indigenous and other ethnic group forms of media, such as story- telling, drama, poetry and song [reflecting their cultures] [reflecting their own cultural values] [reflecting their moral, ethical and religious values], and utilize these forms of communication to disseminate information on development and social issues.